EFFECT OF GONADOTROPHIN (PERGONAL(R)) ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS, BODY CONFORMATION AND SERUM PROTEIN VALUES OF YANKASA RAMS TREATED FOR SPERM PRODUCTION

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–126

Uche Ndubuisi  EGU1, Ifenyinwa Felicia OKONKWO2, Pascal Emeka ETUSIM3

 1Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Abia State University PMB 7010, Umuahia, NIGERIA

2Department of Microbiology, Nnamdi, Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, NIGERIA

3Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Abia State, University, Uturu, Abia State, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author: jc.okonkwo@unizik.edu.ng or ucheegu1@gmail.com

Abstract. Three groups of 6 healthy mature yankasa rams aged 2.0–2.60 years weighing between 30.50 kg and 30.60 kg were assigned to either 49.50 I.U (T2), 99.00 I.U (T3) or 148.50 I.U (T4) Pergonal injection (Ferring labs, USA) each divided into 3 doses and given for three consecutive days. Another group of 6 rams was given normal saline (1 mL) during the same period to serve as control (T1). All treatments were given to study the effect of the drug on body conformation, liver function and serum protein values. All the treatments were given by intramuscular injection. The results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) among the treatment groups in body weight gain. However, there were significant differences (P<0.05) among the treatment groups in scrotal circumference, height at the withers, heart girt and hip width values. The results also showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) among the treatment groups in serum total protein, albumin and globulin values. The result further showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) among the treatment groups in Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase activities, sodium, chloride, potassium, biocarbonate and creatinine values. The results of this study showed that Gonadotrophin (Pergonal(R)) administration to Yankasa rams for spermatogenesis did not result in any hepatoxic or nephrotoxic effects.

Keyword: Yankasa rams, Pergonal®, Liver and kidney function, Serum protein, Body conformation.

126_egu

 

SELECTIVE CRYSTALLIZATION OF MALTOSE BY ISOPROPANOL AND ACETONE FROM GLUCOSE–MALTOSE SYRUPS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–120

Yulia V. DANILCHUK

 Moscow State University of Food Production, 11 Volokolamskoe shosse, 125080, Moscow, RUSSIA

*Corresponding author: dan_uv@mail.ru, Phone: +7(903)7322802;

Abstract. The solvability of glucose and maltose in water–based isopropanol and acetone has been studied. It has been revealed that with increase of organic solvent fraction the solvability of maltose in comparison with glucose sharply decreases. When the mass fraction of water in mixed solvent is less than 0.3, the difference in solvability of glucose and maltose in water–based acetone is significantly higher than their difference in water–based isopropanol. The obtained data served as the basis for the study of crystallization process of glucose and maltose mixtures of different compositions from water–organic solvents. It has been found that the highest efficiency of maltose crystallization from acetone and isopropanol is achieved during crystallization of the mixture containing 75 % of maltose and 25 % of glucose in case of twelve–fold exceedance by the volume of added organic solvent over the volume of water contained in initial syrup. The use of acetone gives a higher total efficiency of separation process, while the use of isopropanol gives a higher optimal content of dry substances (two times and more) in glucose–maltose syrup.

Keyword: acetone, crystallization, maltose, glucose, isopropanol, syrup.

120_danilchuk

 

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS TOWARDS TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SELECTED TOWNS OF ETHIOPIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–113

Anteneh ABEBE1,2*, Metasebia AKLILU1, Tesfaye SISAY1

 1Addis Ababa University, Institute Biotechnology, Department of Health Biotechnology, P.O. Box 30604, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA

2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Ben–Gurion University of the Negev, Beer–Sheva, ISRAEL

*Correspondence author: E–mail: anteneh@post.bgu.ac.il

Abstract. Background: Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy can result in abortion or congenital defects. The knowledge and perception of health professionals towards the disease is not well studied in the country/ the current study was conducted with the objectives to assess of knowledge and perception of health professionals including physician, nurses and gynecologist, working in antenatal care in selected health institution of different parts of Ethiopia. Method: A cross–sectional study was conducted at selected health facilities in different parts of Ethiopia from October 2011 to March 2012. A questionnaire survey was administered for all health professionals to gather information on their knowledge, altitude and perception towards toxoplasmosis. Result: From health professionals, 63 % know health risk of domestic animals like cat with regards to toxoplasmosis. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat and vegetables (71.2 %) were recognized as the common source of T. gondii infection by health professional’s consumption of raw milk (18.4 %), contact with cat faces (14.3 %), and drinking unboiled water (6.1 %) were also mentioned as important modes of transmission. In this study, 52.7 % of health professionals thought toxoplasmosis as important pathogen in HIV infected patients and pregnant women. Conclusion and recommendation: The authors concluded that there is urgent need of incorporating zoonotic diseases concept in the medical education and training. Furthermore, these findings area helpful for optimal design of strategies in contribution of health professionals in relation to toxoplasmosis, pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals.

Keyword: Cats, HIV/AIDS, Pregnancy, Toxoplasmosis, T. gondii, Zoonosis.

113_abebe

EFFECT OF A NOVEL TECHNOLOGY (AIR AND VACUUM FRYING) ON SENSORY EVALUATION AND ACRYLAMIDE GENERATION IN FRIED POTATO CHIPS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–101

Amany, Mohamed Mohamed BASUNY1*, Hala, Hazam Al OATIBI2

 1Oils and Fats Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, EGYPT

2Food Science and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Foods, King Faisal University, SAUDI ARABIA

*Corresponding authors: dramany_basuny@yahoo.com

Abstract. The objective of this work was to sturdy the effect of different frying process as a novel technology (air and vacuum) compared with traditional frying process. The potato chips were fried in both air frying machines (Tefal Actifry) at 180°C ± 5°C for 40 min and vacuum frying at (120°C, 5.37 Kpa absolute pressure) for 40 min, 20 min/batch compared with traditional frying process at 180°C ± 5°C for 40 min, 20/ batch. After frying, the moisture content, oil uptake, acrylamide content and sensory characteristics were determined. Also, changes in some chemical properties of oil extracted from fried potato chips by different frying process were determined. Results indicated that the moisture content, oil uptake and acrylamide content in fried potato chips by (air and vacuum) frying process were significantly lower than fried potato chips by traditional frying process. Changes in some chemical properties (Acid value, peroxide value, polar, polymer and oxidized fatty acids contents) of oil extracted from fried potato were significantly higher in traditional frying process than (air and vacuum) frying process. Sensory characteristics of fried potato chips by new methods of frying (Air and vacuum) surprised on fried potato chips for traditional frying process. Air and vacuum frying can therefore be considered suitable methods of preparing potato chips for modern people who consume excessive oils and are interested in healthier and high quality products.

Keyword: Vacuum frying, air frying, oil uptake, sensory properties, acrylamide content.

101_basuny

EFFECT OF ORANGE ‘‘Citrus sinensis’’ PEEL FROM ALGERIA IN FOOD

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–97

 

Ouldyerou KARIMA*, Ibri KADA, Bouhadi DJILALI, Hariri AHMED, Meddah BOUMEDIENNE, Tirtouil AICHA

 Laboratory of Bioconversion; Microbiological engineering and safety,

Faculty of Science; Department of Biology; University of Mascara, Mascara, ALGERIA

*Corresponding author: mhanine11@yahoo.fr

Abstract. Due to rapid growth of the food processing industry and the consumption of processed foods, the demand for natural antimicrobial agents is on the rise. Consumers have become more aware about the health effects of the synthetic preservatives used in food. Hence natural preservatives are developed to meet the demand of consumers. These natural antimicrobials are developed either from plants or their parts, animals or even microorganisms. Even the waste generated from the food industries is being considered as an alternative to produce natural antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to utilize the waste generated from the citrus fruit processing (peel) industry. This study was to utilize the powder from the peel of Citrus sinensis in food (Oil of olive and cream dessert) to preserve their quality, this peel can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant activity so food preservation purpose.

Keyword: Citrus sinensis peel, powder, food, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity.

97_karima

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE BIOGAS YIELD OF YELLOW YAM BRUTE CO–DIGESTED WITH COW PAUNCH MANURE IN BATCH MODE

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–89

Ifeanyi Chuba Edwin UMEGHALU1, Josiah Chidiebere OKONKWO2

 1Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, NIGERIA

2Department of Animal Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author: umeghaluice@gmail.com

Abstract. Anaerobic digesters were used in a study to compare cumulative biogas yield from yellow yam brute, cow paunch and yellow yam brute co–digested with cow paunch manure. It was found out that the mixture slurry of yellow yam brute mixed with cow paunch (YYB+CP) had the highest cumulative biogas yield of 668.65 mL/TMS than the cumulative biogas yield of 587.86 mL/TMS and 307.96 mL/TMS obtained from the single base line substrates of cow paunch and yellow yam brute, respectively within the 35 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). It was also observed that YYB+CP and cow paunch (CP) produced almost equal quantity of cumulative biogas yield of 398.76 mL/TMS within the first 15 days of observation compared with cumulative biogas yield 178.45 mL/TMS produced by yellow yam brute (YYB) within the same HRT. It was also observed that gas production reduced seriously in mono–digested substrates YYB and Cp compared with the co–digestate because of lack of synergistic nutrients. It is generally observed that co–digestion of more than one substrate increase cumulative biogas yield. The trend of cumulative biogas yield at the end of 35 days hydraulic retention time was YYB+CP > CP > YYB. This study is aimed to evaluate the performance of biogas production from yellow yam brute mixed with cow paunch manure, and to compare its cumulative biogas yield with cow paunch and yellow yam brute digested as mono–digestate in batch mode.

Keyword: Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Substrate, Co–digestion, Cow paunch, Yellow yam brute.

89_umeghalu

CLONING THE COTTON rrn23–rrn5 REGION FOR DEVELOPING A UNIVERSAL INTERFAMILY PLASTIDIAL VECTOR

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–81

Elham GHASEMI1, Bahram Baghban KOHNEHROUZ2*

 1Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN

*2Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, IRAN

*Corresponding authors: bahramrouz@yahoo.com; ely64bio@gmail.com

Abstract. Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages in plant biotechnology, it has been highly proficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient semi lethal selection procedure along with the inefficient recombination through heterologous flanking regions used in transformation vectors prevented this technology to major crops. However, due to the published plastidial genomic sequences and the distinct features of their genomic parts lead the scientists to use of specific and new regions in transformation vectors. In this work, we worked out rrn23–rrn5 fragment as new flanking regions for Malvaceae, Caricaseae, Rutaceae and Solanaceae families by nucleotide homology search. Therefore, the PCR–amplified rrn23–rrn5 region was cloned into the cloning vector using competent cells of E.coli strains DH5α. The sequencing results showed the high homology compared to chloroplast genome of Gossypium sp. with identities of 99 % values.

Keyword: Malvaceae, flanking region, plastid, trnI, trnA, vector.

81_ghasemi

FISH SPECIES ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF RIVER UKE, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–73

Simi Rose ALAMBA*, Gabriel Robert OKAYI, Paul Aunde ANUNNE

 1Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author E–mail: simialamba@yahoo.co.uk, Phone No: +2348067036878

Abstract. A study was conducted to assess fish species abundance and diversity of River Uke, Uke, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Fish were sampled from three sites, upper (A), middle (B) and lower (C) courses of the river. The study lasted for ten months from June 2014 to March 2015. A total of two thousand, one hundred and twenty six (2,126) fish comprising of 7 families and 11 species were sampled. Seasonal fish abundance of River Uke revealed that average monthly catch in the wet season was 25 % lower than in the dry season. Cichlidae dominated the sampled fish families accounting for 26.20 % of total catch while Latidae was least abundant with 6.21 %. Monthly fish abundance was dominated by three species, namely, Clarias gariepinus (18.44 %), Tilapia zilli (14.44 %) and Oreochromis niloticus (11.76 %) all accounting for 44.64% of the total catch. The trend of monthly fish abundance also showed a bi–modal peak with the minor peak observed in March (260) and the major peak in November (292). Fish abundance by sites revealed individual catches of 671, 365 and 1090 in Site A, B and C, respectively. Total Shannon–Wiener Diversity index of River Uke in this study was 2.312 and the index values were generally higher in the wet season (except October) than in the dry season. Total Simpson Index calculated for River Uke in this study was 0.892.

Keyword: Fish, species abundance, diversity, seasonal, River Uke.

73_alamba

PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN HYDROTHERMALLY PROCESSED ORANGE (Citrus sinensis) PULP MEAL

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–68

Kizito UMOGBAI, Lateef Oloyede TIAMIYU, Paul A. ANUNNE

 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author E–mail: *Tel: +2347057790299 e–mail: researchquestion111@gmail.com

Abstract. Orange pulp is a large by–product of orange processing industries, hence an important source of unconventional feeds stuff of agro by–product origin, however, it contain antinutritional factors which limits it utilization on a large scale in animal nutrition, this study seeks to improve the nutritional value of orange pulp meal though hydrothermal processing. Fresh orange pulp were collected from orange sellers in Makurdi town, and divided into five batches, four of these batches were subjected to varying period of hydrothermal processing namely, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, while one of batch was kept as control without processing. Result reveals significant reduction in Oxalate, Tannin and Phytic acid as the time of processing progressed, however, crude protein increased till the 10th min and significantly reduced thereafter, contrary to this, fat and Ash significantly reduce as the time increases, nutritional trials with various animals are recommended to evaluate feed utilization as a result of this processing method.

Keyword: Tannin, Crude protein, Antinutritional factor, Unconventional feed stuff.

68_umogbai

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF FORAGE PEA ORGANIC PRODUCTION

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–60

Natalia GEORGIEVA*, Ivelina NIKOLOVA1, Vladimir DIMITROV2, Daniela DIMITROVA2

 1Institute of Forage crops, 5800–Pleven, Gen. V. Vazov Street, 89, Pleven, BULGARIA

2Institute of viticulture and enology, 5800–Pleven, Kala Tepe Street, 1, Pleven, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: Е–mail: imnatalia @abv.bg

Abstract. The presented evaluation provides an opportunity to be compared the economic results at different variants of forage pea organic production. From the recommended indicators in economic literature in the current evaluation are calculated following ones: total production (€/da), production costs (€/da), cost price (€/kg), net income (€/da) and rentability (%). In the organic production are used four products: foliar fertilizer Biofа, growth regulator and fungicide Polyversum, bioinsecticides Pyrethrum and NeemAzal which are applied alone and in combination. Comparisons are chemicals (regulator Flordimex, insecticide Nurelle D) that are used in the standard conventional technology. All variants of organic production are cost–effective and enable the realization of good economic results. With the highest economic effect is the application of organic fertilizer Biofa in combination with bioinsecticide Polyversum. In the production of hay, this combination provides profitability of 79.30 %, exceeding the profitability of the standard variant in conventional production (75.00 %); the profitability in grain production (137.05 %) is somewhat lower than that of the conventional variant (140.00 %). Overall, the profitability in different variants of pea organic production for grain and hay is with average values of 109.91 % and 51.67 %, as values for the conventional production are 128.905 and 68.43 %, respectively. Although the result of the economic evaluation is chosen a certain optimal variant of pea organic production, open to future studies remain questions concerning the effectiveness of various organic products in different forms of production organization.

Keyword: economic evaluation, rentability, organic production, pea.

60_georgieva