IMPROVEMENT OF ARTEMISININ PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENT BIOTIC ELICITORS IN Artemisia annua BY ELICITATION–INFILTRATION METHOD

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–82

Sona Ayadi HASSAN1*, Tayebeh SOLEIMANI2

1Department of biotechnology, Faculty of advanced sciences and technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IRAN

2Department of biology, Faculty of biological sciences, University of Nourdanesh institute of higher education, Meymeh, IRAN

*Corresponding author: sonaayadi@rocketmail.com

Abstract. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone; is one of the most well–known secondary metabolites with multi–functional therapeutic effects which is isolated from Artemisia annua. Due to low levels of artemisinin in this plant, efforts are being made to optimize its production by various strategies such as elicitation–infiltration. This is a procedure in which, elicitors are injected to the plants by fine–needles directly. In this study, we identified the effect of bacterial and fungal elicitors on artemisinin level and biomass accumulation in A. annua. Artemisinin content was measured by high performance thin layer chromatography. The maximum level of artemisinin was accomplished by injection of 0.4 mg total sugar/ml F. oxysporum and B. cereus decreased artemisinin content in comparison to the controls. 1 McFarland S. aureus was the most successful elicitor, increasing the fresh weight 1.34 fold over the controls.

Keyword: artemisinin, elicitor, elicitation–infiltration, secondary metabolite.

82_HASSAN

ENTOMOLOGICAL MONITORING IN ECOLOGICAL CROP ROTATION

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–77

Evgeniya D. ZHEKOVA

Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflik”, 7007–Roussestr. “Prof. Ivan Ivanov” №1, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: e–mail: e.d.zhekova@abv.bg

Abstract. During the period 2011–2013 a monitoring of entomofauna was performed in environmentally justified crop rotation including alternation of legumes (field beans, forage peas) with cereals (wheat, malting barley). Conventional entomological methods were used for identification of species and population density of harmful insects and their entomophaga. The results were processed according to the crops. In no one of the four crops, pests in density over Economic Injury Level were detected. Diversity of entomophaga was explained via the favorable ecological environmental conditions and namely by the presence of the trophic factor and the absence of chemical treatments with insecticides.

Keyword: entomofauna, monitoring, ecological crop rotation.

77_ZHEKOVA

 

GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF ALL MALE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED COMMERCIAL AND ON–FARM COMPOUNDED DIET

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–70

Samuel O. OLUFEAGBA, Victor T. OKOMODA*, Wilfred OKACHE

1Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author E–mail: okomodavictor@yahoo.com, Phone No: +2348033319959

Abstract. This study was designed to investigate the suitability of on–farm compounded feed as an alternative to commercial expensive feed for the production of all male tilapia in outdoor system. Using Pearson’s square method, locally available conventional feedstuffs (Soybeans, fishmeal and maize meal) were used to formulate equivalent crude protein (45 %) diet to the popularly used commercial aquafeed (Coppens). Fingerlings of All Male Tilapia were fed for eight weeks and assessed for growth. The result obtained reveals significantly higher performance with commercial diet compared to the compounded on–farm feed. Studies on alternating feeding system using on–farm and commercial diet are proposeded to reduce the cost of Tilapia production in undeveloped nations of the world.

Keyword: Nile Tilapia, aquafeed, commercial diet, growth performance.

70_OLUFEAGBA

EVALUATION OF EXON 17 OF INSULIN RECEPTOR (INSR) GENE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH DIABETES TYPE 2 IN AN IRANIAN POPULATION

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–61

Abolhasan REZAEI¹*, Sheyda AKHSHABI¹, Fariba SADEGHI2

 1Department of Genetics–School of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, IRAN

2Department of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, IRAN

 Corresponding Author: Abolhasan Rezaei, e– mail: a.rezaei@tonekaboniau.ac.ir

 Abstract. Mutations in insulin receptor gene cause the inherited insulin resistant syndrome, especially diabetic diseases. Here were optimized the conditions for sequencing of a partial fragment of INSR gene, exon 17. We sequenced fourteen fragments from a diabetic sample and a control group chosen from an Iranian population. In this study we analyzed eleven sequences of diabetic’s patients by DNAMAN program (DEMO 8.0), deposited in Genbank with accession numbers LC055416, LC055417, LC055419, LC055421, LC055423, LC055424, LC055425, LC055426, LC055496, LC055497, and LC055498. From our control group, three sequences were deposited in Genbank with accession numbers of LC055418, LC055420, and LC055422. Results showed that there were variation between the sequences of exon 17 of INSR gene in diabetics and control group. Variations were observed in fragments at the beginning and the end of exon 17 among diabetics population. Moreover we found subjected SNPs between diabetic’s patients that haven’t been reported by other researchers. In this study we concluded that mutations in exon 17 of INSR gene contributed in diabetic diseases.

Keyword: Insulin receptor gene, Exon 17, Diabetes, Sequencing, Control group

61_REZAEI

CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES FOR APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE MARKETING IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE CONSUMPTION OF ORGANIC DAIRY PRODUCTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–49

Katerina BOJKOVSKA1*, Monika ANGELOSKA–DICHOVSKA2, Tatjana PETKOVSKA MIRCHEVSKA3, Nikolce JANKULOVSKI4, Tatjana PETKOVSKA5, Elena JOSHEVSKA6

1,4,6University St. Kliment Ohridski–Bitola, Faculty of biotechnical sciences, Partizanska bb, 700 Bitola, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

2University St. Kliment Ohridski–Bitola, Faculty of Economics, Marksova 133, 7500, Prilep, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

3,5University St. Cyril and Methodius – Skopje, Institute of Economics, Prolet 1, 1000, Skopje, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

*Corresponding author e–mail: katerina.bojkovska@uklo.edu.mk

Abstract. The main goal of this paper is to identify challenges and perspectives for application of sustainable marketing in order to increase demand and consumption of organic dairy products, i.e. to gain insight in consumers’ preferences, motives, attitudes and interests to buy organically produced dairy products in the Republic of Macedonia. This research draws on a survey of 209 respondents within the Republic of Macedonia. The descriptive analysis (Cross tabulation), the nonparametric test of significance Chi–square (χ2) and the correlation indicator Phi coefficient were all applied in examining the working hypothesis. The results of these study present organic buyers tend to be older, with higher education and with higher family income than those who do not buy them. However, the main barrier to increase the market share of organic dairy products is consumer information and availability of organic dairy products in the Republic of Macedonia.

Keyword: organic dairy products, consumption, sustainable marketing.

49_BOJKOVSKA

STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF RUPESTRIS DU LOT ROOTSTOCK ON SOME TECHNOLOGICAL TRAITS OF MUSCAT RUSENSKI AND SUPER RAN BOLGAR TABLE GRAPE CULTIVARS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–41

Galina DYAKOVA1*, Krasimira UZUNOVA2, Ralitsa MINCHEVA1

 1Institute of Agriculture and seed science „Obraztsov chiflik”, 7007 Rousse, 1, Prof. Ivan Ivanov Str., BULGARIA

2 Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, 12, Mendellev bulv. Department Genetics and plant breeding, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: e–mail: djakovarousse@abv.bg

Abstract. The choice of rootstock is important not only for the power that it induces on the grafted variety of grapes, but also with respect to its effects on mineral nutrition, content of sugars, total acids and other technological traits. Two table vine varieties–Misket Rusenski and Super ran Bolgar were the objective of the study, grafted on two different SO4 rootstocks (which is widely used in practice and thus accepted control) and Rupestris du Lot (with common name Montikola). A total of 12 technological traits were reported for both varieties during the vegetation. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using Fisher (F) and Student (t) evaluation criteria. The results showed different levels of significance of the individual traits in both varieties using Rupestris du Lot rootstock compared to the control. Via Fisher’s criterion it was found that 58 % of the traits showed significant differences in Montikola rootstock compared to the control, as the comparison was made based on variability of the traits, while when using the Student criterion for statistical evaluation, the percentage was only 33. The highest significance was reported in the influence of the rootstock on the traits: number of seeds in 100 berries and resistance of berry to pick up from the fruit stalk for cv. Misket Rusenski, determined via both criteria. Comparing the samples tested regarding variability, significant differences were reported of Rupestris du Lot rootstock for the traits: % of berries in grapes and % of mesocarp in berry mass for the same variety. Rupestris du Lot rootstock has significant influence on content of sugars, total acids and mass of 100 seeds in cv. Super ran Bolgar (by the criterion of Fisher) and traits: % of mesocarp of berry mass and % of skin of berry mass (found by the criterion of Student). These traits influence significantly on tasting qualities of grapes and technological qualities of wine. As a result of the analysis of both vines (Misket Rusenski and Super ran Bolgar) a high degree of variability of the values of some technological traits was determined, and it is recommended both criteria to be used for better statistical evaluation.

Keyword: Rupestris du Lot rootstock, statistical evaluation, table vine varieties Misket Rusenski and Super ran Bolgar (Vitis vinifera L.), technological traits

41_DYAKOVA

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF 16SrRNA GENES OF Klebsiella ISOLATED FROM GROUNDNUT AND SOME AMERICAN TYPE CULTURE COLLECTIONS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–34

Abdelmalik IDRIS

 University of Gadarif–449–Al–Gadarif, SUDAN

*Corresponding author: E–mail: malikidris1977@hotmail.com

Abstract. Endophytic and associative bacteria like Klebsiella are known to enhance growth and yield of plants by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilization of phosphate, production of phytohormones and siderophores. Despite this, less genetic information known concerning this important bacteria. Thus, this study was conducted to explore the relationship between Klebsiella spp. isolated from groundnut from Gadarif (Sudan) and some American type culture collections through 16SrRNA gene analysis. Gadarif strain was isolated using Yeast Extract Mannitol Media, DNA was extracted, 16SrRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. The results showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae from the American type culture collections was the most related to that isolated from Gadarif and Klebsiella oxytoca was the most different. The majority differences were found at several distinct positions. The study concluded that Klebsiella spp. isolated from different regions and different environmental conditions differ in their DNA sequences.

Keyword: Endophytic, groundnut, isolate, nucleotides, sequences.

34_ IDRIS

PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN IN AL–MAHWEET GOVERNORATE, YEMEN

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–24

Gawad M. A. ALWABR

Sana’a Community College, Sana’aYEMEN

*Corresponding author: Email: alwabr2000@yahoo.com

Abstract. Schistosomiasis is among the mainly prevalent suffering of human who live in areas of poverty in the developing world. Epidemiological surveys indicated that schistosomiasis is widely distributed in Yemen. Two main forms of human schistosomiasis exist in Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium infection and intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection. This cross–sectional inquiry aims to appreciate the prevalence and corresponding risk factors of schistosomiasis included in primary schoolchildren in Al–Mahweet governorate, Yemen. Urine and faecal specimenes (samples) were collected from 196 primary school children. Urine samples were examined using sedimentation method for presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. While faecal samples were examined using Kato Katz techniques for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni. Structured questionnaires were administered to the subjects of the target population in order to determine infection in relation to associated factors. Overall, 30.1 % of study participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 35.7 % were infected with Schistosoma mansoni and 24.5 % were infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The relation between the prevalence of schistosomiasis infection and the factors of age and gender were not statistically significance (P= 0.183 and 0.560) respectively. The highest rate (61 %) of schistosomiasis infection, were recorded among the schoolchildren who using streams as a main source of water. The urban area of Al–Mahweet governorate had a lower prevalence of schistosomiasis infection (11.9 %), as compared to schoolchildren from rural area (29.4 %). Other multivariate analysis confirmed that schoolchildren fathers’ education status (P= 0.007), sanitary facilities (P= 0.001) and place of residence (P= 0.001) were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis infection among these children. This study reveals that schistosomiasis infection is still highly prevalent in Al–Mahweet governorate, Yemen. This study recommended that, beside periodic drug distribution, a comprehensive intervention strategy should be designed and be implemented to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence.

Keyword: Schistosomiasis, School children, Al–Mahweet governorate, Prevalence, Yemen.

24_ALWABR

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF Hibiscus sabdariffa AND Sesbania grandiflora EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME G–ve AND G+ve STRAINS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–17

 

Azhar A. ZARKANI

 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, 10071 Baghdad, IRAQ

*Corresponding author: azhar.zarkani@yahoo.com

Abstract. Medicinal plants such as Hibiscus sabdariffa and Sesbania grandiflora are widely used to treat different diseases caused by different microbes in several countries. The antimicrobial activities of Hibiscus and Sesbania extracts were examined in present work. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extracts were investigated against Escherichea coli, Staphyloccoccus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study exhibited strong antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa in comparison to S. grandiflora stem and root ethanolic extracts. Results obtained from this study indicate that both extracts exhibited concentration dependent effect. Hibiscus extract showed the highest inhibition activity against all bacterial strains at concentration 500 mg/mL in comparison to Sesbania extract.

Keyword: Antimicrobial activity, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Inhibition zone, Sesbania grandiflora.

17_ZARKANI

BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND FUEL PROPERTIES OF THREE MINOR TREE–BORNE SEED OILS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–5

Bikash MONDAL

Chemistry Department, B.N. Mahavidyalaya, Itachuna, Hooghly–712147, W.B., INDIA,

E–mail: bmondal.bnm@gmail.com

 

Abstract. Nowadays non–edible minor oils have been considered as promising sustainable feedstock for future biodiesel production. Three tree–borne minor seed oils from Annona squamosa (AS), Bombax ceiba (BC) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) plants were studied to assess their potentiality as sources of biodiesel. The seed oils were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition. The AC seed oil was converted into biodiesel by single step NaOH catalyzed transesterification process without any pretreatment as its FFA content was below the 2 % safe limit. The BC and CP seed oils had high FFA content for which they were converted into biodiesel employing acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. The biodiesel yields under the experimental conditions for AS, BC and CP seed oils were 89.4 %, 86.2 % and 85.6 % respectively. The important fuel properties of the seed oil biodiesels such as density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cetane number, calorific value and oxidation stability were tested which revealed that most of them were close to that of diesel and also met the IS and ASTM standard specification for commercial biodiesel. The suitability of seed oil biodiesels blended with diesel was also evaluated. Oil content, biodiesel yield and fuel properties of these three tree–borne oilseeds were satisfactory, therefore, they can be considered as potential sources of biodiesel production.

 Keyword: biodiesel, tree–borne seed oils, Annona squamosa, Bombax ceiba, Ceiba pentandra

5_MONDAL