TRANSFERT HEAVY METAL SEWAGE SLUDGE AS FERTILIZER FROM SOIL TO RAY GRASS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–86

 Najla LASSOUED, Mohamed Naceur KHELIL, Saloua REJEB, Essaid BILAL, Mohamed CHAOUACHI, Mohamed Néjib REJEB, Issam GUENOLÉ–BILAL  (TUNISIA, FRANCE)

Abstract. The land application of sewage sludge reveals a significant increase in dray matter production of Ray Grass (Lolium perenne L.). In equivalent dose of liquid sludge, we registered a lower production of dry material. Besides, neither the dose nor type of sludge seems to have an effect on heavy metals contents in the air part plant. On the other hand, contribution of sludge under dry or liquid forms increases significantly heavy metals contents in roots with regard to witness without sludge. The comparison between the beginning and end of culture, revealed a decrease heavy metals contents in soil in particular at horizon 0–40 cm deep. Besides, this decrease Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu contents in soil is not linking to transfer from soil to air part of plant, but rather is the accumulation in roots, which play the role of a barrier.

Key words: heavy metals, transfer, soil, Ray Grass, sewage sludge

ftxt

 

STUDY ON MAXGROW UNIVERSAL LIQUID FERTILIZER EFFECT ON ALFALFA (Medicago Sativa L.) FOR FORAGE AND SEED PRODUCTION

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–80

 Ivan PACHEV (BULGARIA)

Abstract. Liquid complex fertilizers find wide application in agriculture. The share of the used liquid fertilizers in the world is over 40%. The use of liquid fertilizers in Bulgaria has a very great future, due to their low price and minimum costs of application. They are convenient to dose when preparing the working solution, contain essential macro and micro nutrients in best possible form for assimilation by plants. They are particularly effective for outside root additional nutrition–the so–called foliar fertilizing, which results in better absorption of nutrients (1.2). The last studies showed that liquid fertilizers had a positive influence on the processes of foliar and root additional nutrition of plants with the purpose of increasing the yield and quality of seeds. Other authors recommended the combined application of leaf fertilizers with growth regulators, which increased the effect. The researches in our country on these matters are still insufficient and incomplete. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of the all–purpose liquid fertilizer “MaxGrow” on lucerne for forage and seed. The doses of treatment of lucerne from 0, 03tо 0, 05 l/ha MG for seed production were of interest, since on average for the period the yield was the highest: 356.3; 321.9 and 315.6 kg/ha, respectively. The increase, as compared to the untreated control, varied from 35.4 tо 231.3 kg/ha. Thehighestyieldofforagegreenmass, onaveragefortheperiodofstudy, wasproduced at the dose of 0.06 l/ha MG with an yield of 12540 kg/ha, followed by the doses of treatment of 0,05 and 0,04 l/ha MG with produced green mass from 12490 tо 10330 kg/ha, respectively.

Key words: fertilizing, liquid fertilizers, lucerne, seed production

ftxt

DURABILITY OF ARTIFICIAL SWARD WITH THE PARTICIPATION OF RED FESCUE SITUATED ALONG THE SLOPES OF THE CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAIN VI. STATE OF MIXED SWARD OF RED FESCUE, KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS AND BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–74

 Dimitar MITEV, Galina NAYDENOVA  (BULGARIA)

Abstract. The state of mixed swards of red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass and birdsfoot trefoil was studied, situated along the slopes of the Central Balkan Mountain, during period of 1st to the 13th year of their creation. At a high degree of soil gleying, (at) the low part of slope, the dry matter yields were within the limits of 2.8 t/ha–1 (1997, south–easterly exposure) up to 10.66 t/ha–1 (1999, north–easterly exposure). At a low degree of soil gleying, (and) high part of the slope, dry matter yields were within the limits of 2.34 t/ha–1 (1994, westerly exposure) up to 14.34 t/ha–1 (1995, east exposure). The most prominent in productive terms for period of study are variants at east and south–easterly exposure, slightly gleyed soil. The participation of the sown species in the total forage yield is variable quantity. They reach (at their most) up to 96% in 1998, north exposure, slightly gleyed soils an up to 97% in 2000, north–east exposure, highly gleyed soils. Their share was small in 2004 (44%) and in 2006 (42%) on a westerly slope, highly eroded soils.

Кey words: red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, birdsfoot trefoil, Balkan Mountain, slopes

ftxt

OPTIMIZATION OF THE PECTIN EXTRACTION FROM POMELO PEELS BY OXALIC ACID AND MICROWAVE

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–67

 Le–Pham–Tan QUOC, Le–Thi–Lan ANH, Mai–Vo–Thi–Kieu TIEN, Le–Thi TRANG  (VIETNAM)

Abstract. The objective of research was the study on main factors (pH, irradiation time, the rate of solvent/dried peels of oxalic acid and using microwave) affecting the productivity of crude pectin extraction from pomelo peels. Optimizing the factors was used the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Central Composite Face Centered (CCF) model. There was interaction between rate of solvent/dried peels, pH and irradiation time with amount of pectin crude. The optimal results were crude pectin 18.58% with pH=4.22 and rate of solvent/dried peels (v/w) was 36.05/1 and irradiation time during 8.5 minutes at 660W of real power of microwave. Obtained crude pectin was light white color and pure pectin was approximate 91%. It can use widely in food industry, for instance additive, jam, beverage.

 Кey words: crude, irradiation time, pH, response surface, viscosity, yield

ftxt

SOME BIOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF ANNUAL DROUGHT–RESISTANT FORAGE SPECIES FOR FOOTHILL REGIONS OF CENTRAL NORTHERN BULGARIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–63

V. LINGORSKI, T. KERTIKOV (BULGARIA)

Abstract. During the period 2011–2013 in Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, Troyan (Bulgaria) the comparative testingof some annual drought–resistant cereal and legume pure crops (bitter vetch, chickpea, foxtail millet, true millet) was accomplished. It was found that the determining parameters the quantity of seed yields (weight of seeds in 1 inflorescence and weight of 1000 seeds) in cereals had at smaller values than legume crops.In respect of the yield of seeds can be deemed thatthey amount to minimum values characteristic of the corresponding forage crop. The reasons for this are the typical soils (lightgray forest pseudopodzolic with acid reaction, poorly stocked with essential nutrients, especially nitrogen)for the region, drought climate in the region in recent years and the absence of fertilization in this experiment. For this reasons the foothill regions of the Central Balkan Mountains can be considered unsuitable for ecological seed production of studied annual forage crops.

Кey words: botanical structuralelements; seed productivity; cereal and legume monocultures;drought–resistance; Central Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria)

 ftxt

PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL STUDIES OF PAPER MILL EFFLUENT, RAIPUR (CHHATTISGARH), INDIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–57

 Pramod K. MAHISH, Kishan L. TIWARI, Shailesh K. JADHAV  (INDIA)

 Abstract. The present study report physiochemical properties of paper mill effluent and fungal diversity present in effluent. The fungi were further studied for production of organic waste degrading enzymes. Water quality analyzer, turbiditymeter and spectroquant nova 60 and titration method were used to physiochemical properties of paper mill effluent. Fungi were isolated from effluent in agar plate. Organic waste degrading amylolytic and cellulolytic enzyme produce by fungi were recorded in agar plate. The mean value of different physiochemical properties were found as follows: pH 7.50, EC 4.26 mS, TSS 0.28 mg/L, TDS 436.4 mg/L, Turbidity 145.26 NTU, DO 4.48 mg/l, BOD 48.26 mg/L, COD 54.14 mg/L, fluoride 1.15 mg/L, lead 1.78 mg/L and iron 0.51 mg/L. Aspergillus niger, A. fumigates and Penicillium oxalicum were found as dominant species. Fungi isolated from paper mill effluent produced enzymes to degrade the organic waste substances.

 Key words: biodiversity of fungi, enzymatic potential fungi, paper mill effluent, physiochemical properties

ftxt

EVALUATION OF ANTI–HIV–1 ACTIVITY OF CORDIA MYXA L. AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–51

Khaled RASHED, Meng–TING LUO, Lin–TAO ZHANG, Yong–TANG ZHENG  (EGYPT and CHINA)

Abstract. This study deals with evaluation of anti–HIV–1 activity from Cordia myxa stemsextracts and investigation of phytochemical content of the plant extracts. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol 80% extracts of Cordia myxawere tested for their anti–HIV–1 activity using the syncytia formation assay. All the extracts showed a weak anti–HIV–1 activity. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts proved the presence of the following phytochemicals, triterpenes in dichloromethane extract. Flavonoids and triterpenes in ethyl acetate extract. Carbohydrates, flavonoids, and triterpenes in methanol extract. This research work gave a brief note about main chemical constituents and anti–HIV–1–activity of Cordia myxa extracts.

 Key words: Cordia myxa, stems, cytotoxicity, anti–HIV–1 activity, phytoconstituents

ftxt

SEED YIELD AS AFFECTED BY THE ECOLOGICAL STABILITY OF THE FIELD PEA (PISUM SATIVUM) CULTIVARS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–45

Valentin Ivanov KOSEV (BULGARIA)

Abstract. A small–plot field trial was carried out from 2007 to 2009 including seven field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars from the Ukraine and Bulgaria. The ecological stability in tested pea cultivars was determined in relation to seed yield. Stability parameters were determined by regression analysis according to methods by Eberhart and Russell and Tai. The analysis of variance proved that influence of factors genotype, environment and genotype x environment and seed yield had a very high level of probability. The cultivars Kerpo from Bulgaria and Usatii 90 from Ukraine could be considered close to an ideal type (bi=1.04, λi=11.08; bi=1.05, λi= 1.12), suitable for growing in different environments. On the other hand, the Bulgarian Mir (bi=1.56, λi=49.41) and Ukrainian Harkovskii Etalon (bi=1.28, λi=95.88) were identified as unstable (bi>1), but with good response that provide them with high seed yields in certain environments. The cultivars Vesela (bi=0.77, λi=6.77) from Bulgaria, Pleven 10 (bi=0.71, λi=59.49) from Bulgaria and Rezonator (bi=0.68, λi=35.07) from Ukraine were assessed as stable (bi<1), but with a low adaptability except for Vesela. In conclusion, cultivars Kerpo, Usatii 90 and Vesela may be regarded as suitable for including in future hybridisation programmes and developing novel field pea lines with high and stable seed yields in contrasting environments.

 Key words: adaptability, breeding, pea, seed yield, stability

ftxt

DIAGNOSTICS OF PARAMETERS OF INTERRELATION OF MINERAL NUTRITION AND FORMATION OF YIELD OF FRUIT CROPS FOR INTENSIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF THEIR CULTIVATION

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–41

 T. MALYUK; N. PCHOLKINA; I. PACHEV (UKRAINE and BULGARIA)

Abstract. Results of research on definition of optimum level of providing nutrition elements for pome crops by identification of functional links between their contents in soil, leaves and yield of plants in south of Ukraine are given.

 Key words: plant diagnostics, optimum content of elements, yield, intensive orchards of apple and pear

ftxt

ACUTE TOXICITY OF NPK 20:10:10 TO FINGERLINGS OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–34

Victoria O. AYUBA, Victor T. OKOMODA, Samuel I.O. OGAH (NIGERIA)

Abstract. Fertilizers application might positively or negatively affect the aquatic environment to the benefit or detriment of aquatic organisms including fish. Inorganic fertilizer are used in pond for fertilization purposes, however, beyond a tolerance limit it could be potentially dangerous to fish causing stress as well as death, this study therefore seek to determine acute toxicity of NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer to Fingerlings of African catfish Clarias gariepinus using a static bioassay test. African catfish were obtained from a homogeneous source and acclimatized for two weeks. The 96 hour LC50 of NPK 20:10:10 to Clarias gariepinus was observed to be 3.299 g/L with lower and upper limits of 3.232 g/L and 3.337 g/L respectively, toxicity of Nitrogen in NPK 20:10:10 was estimated to be 0.659 with lower limits of 0.6463 and upper limits of 0.675 while toxicity of potassium/phosphate in NPK 20:10:10 were obtained to be 0.329 with lower and upper limits of 0.3232 and 0.3378 respectively. Toxicosis symptoms observed includes loss of balance, respiratory distress, vertical and erratic movement and death. Observation of toxicosis symptoms in experimental fish began on second day of study with it peak at about the 62nd hour. Precautious use of NPK in pond fertilization is advised.

Keywords: African Catfish, fertilizer toxicity, stress pattern, agricultural fertilize

ftxt