RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF OLIVE OIL AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES

SHAKER M. Arafat, AZZA A. Ahmed 

Abstract. This study was carried out to study some quality indices (acid value, peroxide value and UV absorption K232nm, K270nm and ∆K) of virgin olive oil of three varieties (Coratina, Koronakii and Picual) at two stages of ripening. Also, organoleptic tests phenolic content, α–tocopherol and oxidative stability measured by Rancimat method at 100°C were determined. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrum (GC–MS) system. Twenty–five compounds were isolated and characterized by GC–MS. The presence of some of these compounds in virgin olive oil had not been previously reported. All results indicated that there was a wide variability in the chemical and aroma characteristics of the selected virgin olive oils.

 Key words: olive oil, volatile compounds, quality indices, stability.

ANALYSIS OF VIRTUAL FILE TYPES USED BY THE LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM

Cristian VASILE

Abstract. The rapid evolution in recent years in all areas of activity has led to the widespread use of computers and automatic processing technologies of data and information. By connecting to the Internet there is also the possibility of an exchange of information between users of the network. For these reason a very important problem for any user of the computer is the security of the dates and the LINUX operating system can to offer this pressing requirement. This article proposes a study on virtual file types that can be used by the LINUX operating system. Through this manner of implementation the LINUX operating system can to use some different types oh file systems: XFS, EXT2, EXT3, JFS and Reiser. For that reason, in the present paper the capacity of LINUX operating system through the mediation of the virtual file system to offer the support for this types of file systems is analyzed.

 Key words: file system, structure, virtual, operating system, process, inode.

DEGREE OF WEED INFESTATION OF FIELD CROPS, GROWN IN CROP ROTATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

Luba NENOVA, Iliana IVANOVA, Svetlana STOYANOVA

 Abstract. During the period 2008–2010 at the Experimental field of IASS “Obraztsov chiflik”–Rousse a field experiment was conducted, including cultivation and rotation of crops: beans Obraztsov chiflik” variety, wheat Yantur variety, soybeans Zarya variety, and wintering oats line RS–2 in four–field crop rotation under conditions of organic farming. The experiment started after the Block method in two variants–controls (without fertilization) and foliar fertilization by the humate fertilizer Humustim in four replications, the size of harvesting plot being 52.5 m2. In crop growing in crop rotation technological schemes were applied according to the requirements of the organic farming without using chemicals, following the Regulation N 22 from 04.07.2001 of MAF for organic plant production. The field experience was located in an area, where two–year period of conversion was observed. During the period of investigation in crops of crop rotation, the density of perennial weeds had remained relatively constant. In variants with fertilization by Humustim the total number of weeds was lower than those without fertilization. It was founded from the monitoring that the lowest density of weed infestation was observed in wintering oats, grown after soybeans–100 pcs./m2 and in wheat, grown after field beans–122 pcs./m2.

 Keywords: field crops, weed infestation, organic farming

USE OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS FOR INCREASING QUALITY OF SOME BAKERY PRODUCTS

Amany M. BASUNY; Shereen L. NASEF; Eman A. M. MAHMOUD; Shaker M. ARAFAT

Abstract. The present study was performed to use medicinal herbs (anise, black cumin, rosemary and sage as natural antioxidants and antimicrobial to increase shelf–life of some bakery products. Essential oils and phenolic compounds of selected herbs were extracted and quantitative determined. Essential oils components and phenolic compounds of herbs were fractionated by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum Technique (GC–MS). Essential oils and phenolic compounds of herbs were added at different concentrations (200, 400, 800 and 1000ppm) and BHT (200ppm) to sunflower oil and determined stability by Rancimat method at 100°C±2°C. Also, were screened against four gram–negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris) and two gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) at four different concentrations using disc diffusion method. Essential oils and phenolic compounds of selected herbs and BHT were added to cake and determined peroxide value during storage and sensory evaluation. The results indicated that addition of essential oils and phenolic compounds of herbs prolonged the oxidative stability of sunflower oil and can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

Key words: medicinal plants, essential oils, phenolic compounds, antioxidant, antiomicrobial.

ftxt

INFLUENCE OF SUCROSE CONCENTRATION ON IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF RIBES RUBRUM SPECIES

Carmen MANOLE, Viorica BALAN, Catalina TUDORA, M. BUTU, Georgeta FIDLER, Steliana RODINO, Diana GOLEA, Alina BUTU

 Abstract. Sucrose is one of the major sources of carbon and energy to the culture media used for in vitro cultures of plants. In this article, was studied the influence of different sucrose concentrations on in vitro multiplication of the species Ribes rubrum (15 g/l, 30 g/l, 45 g/l, 60 g/l) on MS culture medium containing half macroelements supplemented with growth regulators BA (0.2 mg/l), IBA (0.01 mg/l) at pH=5.7–5.8. The highest multiplication rate was observed using theculture medium with a sucrose concentration of 45 g/l.

Key words: Ribes rubrum, sucrose concentration, micropropagation

ftxt

INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION AND WAYS OF USE ON NATURAL MEADOW OF AGROSTIS CAPILLARIS–FESTUCA FALLAX TYPE IN THE RHODOPE MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN BULGARIA)

Yanko KOZHOUHAROV, Vladimir LINGORSKI

Abstract.The experiment showed that the application of mineral fertilization up to N160P80 increased dry matter yields between different ways of use as follows: from 5.88 to 6.45 t.ha1 (annually hay–pasture uses), from 4.72 to 5.21 t.ha1 (annually pasture–hay uses) and from 5.84 to 6.40 t.ha1 (1st year: pasture–hay uses; 2nd year: only pasture use; 3rd year: hay–pasture uses). As regards to studying chemical indicators of the forage (crude fiber, crude fat, crude ash and nitrogen–free extract substances) the mineral fertilization and alternation of ways of use had a positive effect. The introduction of mineral fertilizers at a rate up to N160P80 increased the obtained feed units and crude protein per 1 ha.

 Key words: natural meadow, mineral fertilization, ways of use, productive and chemical indicators, the Rhodope Mountains.

ftxt

CORRELATIONS AND DEGREE OF VARIATION BETWEEN YIELD AND SOME INDICATORS OF GROWTH AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE GRASS FR THE BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL AND ITS MIXTURES WITH MEADOW GRASS SPECIES

 Boriana CHOURKOVA 

Abstract. From 2002 to 2005, the behaviour of local population of birdsfoot trefoil in binary mixtures with meadow grass species was conducted in the experimental field of RIMSA–Troyan. The variants of the experiment include testing of birdsfoot trefoil–variety Turgovishte 1 (referenceSt), cultivated its own and local population of birdsfoot trefoil in binary mixtures with tall fescue (Albena); perennial ryegrass (Pleven population); bromegrass (Nika); smooth–stalked meadow grass (Troyan population); orchard grass (Dabrava); red fescue (Troyan population); wheatgrass (Ruff). The height of plants shall be amended under the influence of weather conditions, the rate of growth and development of grasses interrelation and competitiveness of the components in grass composition indicative of received Variation coefficients.The production of birdsfoot trefoil and grass types varied with regard to treatments and years. The variation coefficients indicating yields stabilityshowed that it was best expressed in the mixture of birdsfoot trefoil and tall fescue (CV=45.42%) andorchagrdgrass(CV=48.65%).The values of crude protein in all variants were negative correlation coefficient. The correlationcoefficient of the compound with crude fiber content was very positive and strong correlations.

 Key words: birdsfoot trefoil, mixtures, productivity, chemical composition, correlation analysis, height

ftxt

CHANGES IN SOME FORAGE INDICATORS OF ANNUAL WINTER CROPS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAINS IN BULGARIA

V. LINGORSKI

Abstract. In this study the highest dry matter yields were harvested from triticale (for pure crops) and from triticale+winter pea (for mixed crops). By pure crops the highest values of crude protein content (8.78 and 9.02%) had winter barley and winter vetch, and by mixed crops–winter barley+winter pea, winter barley+winter vetch and triticale+winter pea (11.40, 9.15 and 9.17%, respectively). The content of crude fat in forage had near values for studying pure and mixed crops. For all sowing crops the crude fibre content varied also in comparatively little limits, while the nitrogen–free extract matters for pure crops ranged within widely limits in comparison with mixed crops. The highest crude protein yield from all crops (without the standards) was obtained only by triticale, and it was 40.00% higher than winter barley. All other crops had a lower productivity than other corresponding standards.

Key words: annual winter crops, dry mass, chemical composition, crude protein yield, Central Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria).

ftxt

MARKETING MIX APPLIED TO PREPARATIONS WITH VITAMIN C AND RESVERATROL CONTENT

Eleonora ONC–JOVANOVIC, Angela CAUNII

 Abstract. Preparations containing vitamins and antioxidants through their wealth in bioactive components are a very efficient source of compounds to prevent excessive accumulation of free radicals in the body or to interact with existing ones and improve the health of the population. This study aims to study bio components products containing antioxidant compounds with vitamin activity. An example of this is grapes, especially those of Vitis vinifera. For these products to meet both the human body needs and the demands of consumers, the study was completed by operational marketing applications. The high quality of the studied products is represented by the ability to easily enter the usual American diet and inadequate consumer components of vitamins and antioxidants. This is also an effective way to prevent power imbalances that can lead to degenerative diseases and maintain a state of optimal health.

  Keywords: marketing mix, vitamin C, antioxidant bio components, resveratrol

ftxt

THE PROCESS MANAGEMENT OF FOOD ENRICHMENT SUPPLEMENTS WITH ANTIOXIDANTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON QUALITY OF LIFE

Eleonora ONC–JOVANOVIC, Angela CAUNII

Abstract. Resveratrol is a fitoalexina, which belongs to a class of antibiotics produced by plants as a means of defense against possible infections especially fungal. Resveratrol (3.5, 4 I trihidroxistilben) is a polyphenolic fitoalexin. It is a stilbenoid, stilbene derivative. There are two isomers: cis–(Z) and trans–(E). Tran’s isomer can undergo isomerization to the cis–form when heated or exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Currently on the market nutritional supplements these special supplements containing resveratrol these that bring added value to the daily diet especially in the fight to reduce the risk of carcinogenesis have a special place. This paper seeks to bring additional justification for such an improved diet and emphasizes on process management approach to implement the use of these supplements with the clear purpose of improving the quality of life.

Keywords: process management, nutritional supplements, antioxidants, trans–resveratrol

ftxt