THE IMPACT OF THE HARVESTING YEAR ON CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VRANEC WINE

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–97

Gjore NAKOV, Dragan DAMJANOVSKI, Valentina PAVLOVA, Daniela N. NEDELKOSKA, Ljupka NECINOVA, Naiden DELCHEV 

Abstract.This paper defines chemical and physical characteristics of Vranec wine, grown in region of Povardarie, particular Tikvesh wine region. Vranec is a Montenegrin autochthonous grape variety and also it is one of most widespread red wine varieties in Macedonian vineyard regions. Due to grape localized geography it produces a dry red wine of unique taste that is synonymous with Balkans. The samples differ between each other by year of harvest: 2009, 2010 and 2011. All samples have finished fermentation in a bundle and then were stored in a storage tank for finished wine. The physical–chemical properties of tested wines (total acid, pH, lactic acid, acetic acid, malic acid, citric acid, reducing sugars, total sugars, volatile acids, alcohol, total and free SO2, polyphenols, anthocyanins, colour intensity and shade) were determinated by using traditional and advanced analytical techniques. Also, correlation of variation of climatic parameters during different harvest years with characteristics of produced wines was assessed.

 

Keywords: Vranec, Republic of Macedonia, wine, physico–chemical characteristics

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EFFECT OF THE SOWING TIME ON SOME BIO–PRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS OF ANNUAL SUMMER FORAGE MIXTURE

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–93

Vladimir LINGORSKI

Abstract.During the 2010–2012 periods in the Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture (RIMSA) in Troyan the effect of sowing timeon somebio–productive parameters ofthe forage from annual summermixturewas performed. It was established that the most optimal time for sowing of annual summer mixture from sorghum–Sudan grass hybrid and horse bean grown under the foothill conditions of Central Balkan Mountains (Troyan region) is period from 1st to 10th of July. The received forage amounted to 2.20 t. ha–1 green mass and 0.50 t. ha–1 dry matter, which exceeded the later sowing periods from 7.55% (from 11th to 20th July) to 61.93% (from 1st to 10th August) and from 16.28 to 65.98%. There was a least weed infestation of mixture at last sowing period (from 1st to 10th August) and reached 3.03–3.85%.

Keywords:annual summermixture,cereal and legume crop, sowing time, forage parameters

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ANTI OXIDANT ACTIVITY AND ANTHOCYANIN CONTENT IN FLOWER OF MIRABILIS JALAB L. COLLECTED FROM YEMEN

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–85

 Naji EBRAHIM, KERSHI, R.M. Nasser. AWADH ALI A., AHMEDA.T.A., RAMZY M.

Abstract.The aim of this study was to investigate and compare Mirabilis jalab L. extracts obtained in ultrasonic condition with different water/methanol and water/ethanol extraction mixture acidified with 0.1% HCl. The extracts were analyzed for monomeric anthocyanins contents and antioxidant activities. The highest anthocyanins content (3197.8 mg/L) and bestantioxidant activity were obtained for Mirabilis jalab extract with 100% ethanol. Also, there is a good correlations between antioxidant activity (R2= 0.9332 and 0.9712) for water/ethanol and methanol series extracts respectively.

 Keywords: Mirabilis jalab, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity

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PHENOLOGICAL AND BOTANICAL OBSERVATIONS OF UNTRADITIONAL DROUGHT–RESISTANT ANNUAL FODDER SPECIES FOR FOOTHILL REGIONS OF CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAINS (BULGARIA)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–77

 Vladimir LINGORSKI, Todor KERTIKOV

Abstract. During the 2011–2013 period in RIMSA, Troyan (Bulgaria) a comparative testing of phenological and botanical changesof some annual drought–resistant cereal and legume pure crops (bitter vetch, chick–pea, foxtail millet and true millet) for foothill regions of Central Balkan Mountains was accomplished. It was found that regardless of the reason of harvesting (for forage or for seeds) and concrete climatic conditions of the year, the legumes (chick–pea and bitter vetch) had a longer growing period than cereal species (foxtail millet and true millet). A better density of crops had the cereals but more weeds were seen in legume forage areas.

 Кeywords:phenological phases, duration of vegetation period, weed infestation, cereal and legume crops, drought–resistance, Central Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria).

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GROWTH RESPONSES OF PURE BRED HETEROBRANCHUS BIDORSALIS, CLARIAS GARIEPINUS AND THEIR INTERGENERIC CROSSES FED COMMECIAL DIET

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–71

SOLOMON S.G., OKOMODA V.T. OCHAI L.

Abstract.This study seeks to compare the growth of two African catfishes and their hybrid fed with commercial diet. Fingerling of Clarias gariepinus Heterobranchus bidorsalis and hybrid H. bidorsalis x C. gariepinus (Heteroclarias) were obtained from homogeneous breeding. Fingerlings with mean weight 1.11±0.01 were stocked in triplicate plastic tanks for this study. The study observed that C. gariepinus had the highest Mean Final weight (7.75), Mean weight gain (6.65), Specific growth rate (2.10), Feed conversion efficiency (53.2 %) and Protein efficiency ratio (6.23) compared with H. bidorsalis and Heteroclarias which had lower growth values (p<0.05), however survival rate were the same across the species. Similarly carcass moisture and lipid content were observed to be higher in C. gariepinus compared to the others, However, Ash, fiber and NFE content of the hybrid were higher compared to pure breeds (P<0.05). Also, significantly higher carcass protein was recorded in H. bidorsalis compared to the others, while higher lipid where observed in C. gariepinus. It is concluded that at early stage of life, C. gariepinus exhibit faster growth rate.

Keywords: African catfish, coppens feed, Heteroclarias, Mean Protein gain, Mean lipid gain

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EXPRESSION OF HETEROSIS AND DEGREE OF DOMINANCE IN F1 OF SOME QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN TWO MAIZE HYBRIDS, DEPENDING ON THE METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–65

Lyubomir IVANOV

Abstract.During the period 2008–2010 under conditions without irrigation at the Experimental field of IASS “Obraztsov Chiflik”–Rousse, hybrids Ruse 464, Ruse 555 and their parental lines were studied in density of growing 5500 plants/da. Average values, expressions of heterosis and degree of dominance in F1 of traits: length of maize ear, mass of 1000 grains, leaf area per a plant, height of formation of the top maize ear and length of panicle were determined and analyzed. Degrees of dominance in F1 indicated that heterosis in all traits were due to positive over dominance, as it was stronger expressed in both hybrids regarding traits length of maize ear and leaf area per a plant. Expressions of heterosis in hybrids studied showed different genetic basisof parental lines in both hybrids and the possibility they to be used in various trends of breeding, depending on the trait we want to improve.

 Keywords:heterosis, degree of dominance, maize, parental components

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ACUTE TOXICITY TEST IN AQUACULTURE: A REVIEW

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–59

 Victor T. OKOMODA, Shola G. SOLOMON,Gabriel A. ATAGUBA, Victoria O. AYUBA, and Pius F. ASUWAJU

Abstract. Acute toxicity test involves estimation of LC50 or LD50 which is the concentration or dose which proved to be lethal causing death to 50% of the tested organisms. This article reviews the methods utilized for the determination of Probit and LC50 and also explain the use of Minitab 14 statistical package and Microsoft office excel 2007 for accurate, speedy and qualitative presentation of toxicity results. We also present a brief review on the relationship between uptake route of toxicants and their toxic effects.

 Keywords:Bioassay, LC50, probit, computation, Minitab 14

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EVALUATION OF SPRING FORAGE PEA VARIETIES BY QUALITY–RELATED CHARACTERISTICS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–54

 Anna ILIEVA, Valentin KOSEV

Abstract.In2008–2010intheSecondExperimentalFieldoftheInstituteofForageCrops–Pleven, a comparative field trial was carried out with 6 Bulgarian and 3 Ukrainian varieties of spring forage pea (Pisum sativumssp. sativumL.). VarietyPleven 4 wasusedas a standard. A biochemical assessment of the aboveground biomass of the varieties was made by following characteristics:content of crude protein, crude fiber, calcium, and phosphorus and water soluble sugars. The results of the study showed that, in comparison with standard, Bulgarian varieties Amitie, Pikardi, Kerpo and Kristal had the best values of the analyzed characteristics in the aboveground biomass. These varieties were distinguished for comparatively high content of crude protein and water soluble sugars and low content of crude fiber. At both phenological stages (budding and full maturity) statistically significant correlational relationships were established–positive between the content of crude protein and phosphorus (r=0.503; r=0.436) and negative between crude fiber and crude protein (r=–0.419; r=–0.721), between crude fiber and water soluble sugars (r=–0.573; r=–0.723) and between calcium and phosphorus (r=–0.522; r=–0.536).

Keywords:spring forage pea, aboveground biomass, biochemical assessment

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EVALUATION OF SOME YEAST STRAINS TO OBTAIN FORAGE BIOMASS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–48

 Steliana RODINO, Marian BUTU, Constanta NEGOESCU

Abstract.The present paper presents the screening of two yeast strains, for the obtainment of forage biomass from grape marc diffusion solution supplemented with wine yeast extract. The yeast strains used were Saccharomyces ellipsoideus originating from alcoholic fermentation, and a strain of Rhodotorula sp. Protein biosynthesis was monitored by determining the following parameters: alcohol concentration at the beginning and end of the process, the optical density of the culture medium, the residual sugar, and the wet and dry biomass. Better results were obtained for Rhodotorula sp. strain, and this can be explained by the presence of glucose which is a much better tolerated carbon source than the ethanol.

 Keywords: grape marc, forage protein, wine yeast.

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MICROPROPAGATION OF LOWBUSH BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IV(8)–42

 Mariya GEORGIEVA

Abstract. Blueberry is an early–ripening fruit crop, which is of interest due to its rich biochemical composition, including mineral salts, organic compounds, vitamins and other, which have an important role for the physiological processes running in the organism. The efforts during the last years have been directed to enlargement of genetic diversity in this species, using different biotechnological approaches. Their successful and effective application is connected with study of the generative potential of the species and use of the most suitable plant explants for propagation, which preserve its genetic stability. The choice of blueberry as an object of this study was based on the interest for this crop, which is commercial and scientific. The study presents the possibility for micropropagation of lowbush blueberry cultivar Dwarf Tophat on WPM basal nutrient medium. The highest proliferation coefficient (3.1) during the stage of multiplication was reached at the fifth passage of subculturing on WPM, supplemented with 2 mg/L zeatin and 3 mg/L 2–ip. The best rooting ability (85.53 %) was obtained on WPM, with a salt concentration reduced by half and addition of 0.2 mg/L NAA. The obtained clonal plants were vigorous, in a good physiological state and successfully rooted and adapted to the environmental conditions.

 Keywords: blueberry, Dwarf Tophat, micropropagation, zeatin, zeatin ribozoide, shoot proliferation, rooting

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