EFFECTS OF THE MARL ON THE PERFORMANCE, CUTTING YIELD AND MEAT QUALITY OF BROILER CHICKENS

Ouachem DERRADJI, Meredef AISSA, Kaboul NOURREDINE, Ahmed Gaid ZOHRA, Bakroune FATEN, Bensalem ADEL (ALGERIA)

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–71

Abstract. Following the economic and social pressures that have affected the poultry market, and after prohibition of the antibiotic growth promoter’s use, various natural additives have been proposed as an alternative for the poultry feed industry. Among these products, some clay types or derivatives were used in order to improve the digestive health and to optimize the growth performances. However, studies on the effects of clays on carcass cut up pieces yield and meat quality are unavailable. The aim of this trial is to study in broiler chickens during a rearing period of 56 days, the effects of 3% of marl addition on growth performance (slaughter weight and feed consumption ratio), the carcass and cut up pieces yield and meat quality through three indicators (abdominal fat, ultimate pH and water loss).Results showed firstly, that marl increases significantly the slaughter body weight (+ 8.3%, P=0.02) and provides an enhancement to the feed consumption ratio (–5%). Parallel, marl incorporation significantly improves the ready cook chicken yield (+ 9.13%, P<0.001), the breast meat (+11%, P=0.01) and reduce the abdominal fat (–11.8%, P=0.005). Furthermore, the effect of marl on the ultimate pH was not marked statistically (5.84 vs. 5.81) and water loss of breast muscle was less important at chickens fed with marl diet (2.04 vs. 2.40). Results of this trial suggest that marl can be used as a natural supply to promote an efficient chicken’s portion and to produce a technological meat quality adapted to further processing.

Keyword: Marl; Ultimate pH; Yield carcass; Growth performance; abdominal fat; Water loss; Broilers.

ftxt

BIODIESEL SOLID WASTE AND URBAN SLUDGE SEWAGE AS A SOIL AMENDMENT FOR THE SEEDLINGS PRODUCTION OF Eucalyptus Camaldulensis AND Morus Alba

Mariana Ferreira Rabelo FERNANDES, Regynaldo Arruda SAMPAMPAIO, Essaid BILAL, Jatnel Alonso LAZO Luiz Arnaldo FERNANDES (BRASIL, FRANCE, CUBA)

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–77

Abstract. We examine in this study a possibility of use the biodiesel industry waste as a source of nutrients for the production and development of seedlings seems like a very good option. We added the diatomaceous earth residues of Biodiesel with sludge from urban wastewater treatment or manure to stimulate the activity of soil bacterial. The Dickson Quality Index (DQI) values Eucalyptus Camaladulensis and Morus Alba seedlings growing in test substrates with sewage sludge and diatomaceous earth are all higher than the recommended minimum value of 0.2. The treatments with manure and diatomaceous earth do not meet the desired quality standard. The Eucalyptus Camaladulensis and Morus Alba seedlings have good growth in substrates containing sewage sludge and diatomaceous earth than only the commercial substrate. They can use up to 50% by volume of the substrate without compromising the seedlings quality with a reduction of cost of seedlings production.

Keyword: diatomaceous earth, Dickson Quality Index, Eucalyptus Camaladulensis and Morus Alba.

ftxt

THE FRESHWATER MUSSELS ARE A GOOD BIOINDICATOR FOR MONITORING THE WATER POLLUTION BY HEAVY METAL (THE SAINT–VICTOR–SUR–LOIRE LAKE, FRANCE)

Essaid BILAL1, Issam GUENOLÉ–BILAL4, Moussa BOUNAHKLA3, Luisa Elena IATAN1,4, Fernando MACHADO de MELLO5, Marc DOUMAS1, Mounia TAHRI3, Frédéric GALLICE1, Didier GRAILLOT1, Herve PIEGAY6, Najla LASSOUED7

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–5

 1Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, GSE, CNRS UMR 5600, F42023 Saint Etienne FRANCE; bilalessaid@gmail.com, 2Département de physiologie, Université de Lausanne–CHUV, Lausanne, SUISSE, 3Nuclear Centre of Energies, Sciences and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN), B.P. 1382, R.P. 10001, Rabat, MOROCCO. 4Institute Geodynamic “Sabba S. Stefanescu” of Romanian Academy, Bucharest, ROMANIA. 5Institutos de Geociencias, Universidade de São Paulo–USP–Posdoc Research, BRASÍLIA, 6UMR 5600 EVS / Site ENS de Lyon 69342 Lyon, FRANCE. 7Faculty of Science of Tunis, Department Plant biology, on 1002 Tunis, TUNISIA

 Abstract. The study has focused freshwater mussels to determine the risk of water pollution. We have shown that freshwater mussels are a good bioindicator for monitoring over time this type of water pollution due to their ability to filter water from the river. The entire food chain (freshwater mussels, mollusc, shrimp, fish, birds and humans) is affected by the pollution. The Saint Etienne (France) has a large industrial and mining history. The end of these activities has given way to industrial wasteland and mine dumps. Leaching by rain industrial and mining waste may generate a very large urban pollution. Rivers (Ondaine and Loire) and lakes (Saint–Victor–sur–Loire) downstream of this zone are highly polluted by heavy metals.

Key words: Heavy metals, freshwater mussels; Bioaccumulation; Bioindicator.

ftxt

BREEDING EVALUATION OF FORAGE PEA VARIETIES AND HYBRIDS BY THE TRAITS NUMBER SEEDS AND SEED WEIGHT PER PLANT

Valentin Ivanov KOSEV

 Institute of Forage Crops–Pleven, Gen. Vladimir Vazov 89 street, 5800 Pleven, BULGARIA; e–mail: valkosev@hotmail.com

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–12

Abstract. Proved is the influence of the factors “genotypes” and “individual measurements” on the variability of the components of productiveness weight of seeds and number seeds per plant in investigated varieties and hybrids forage pea. Vastly is the influence of the factor “genotypes” in the common variation of the traits–weight of seeds and number seeds per plant as in parents so and in F1 and F2 hybrids. The highest productiveness of weight and number of seeds per plant is obtained in the hybrids Кеrро х Мir from F1 and Мir х E.F.B.33 from F2 that surpass parents.

Key words: breeding, pea, seed productivity

ftxt

Sero–Prevalence, and Associated Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women and HIV/AIDS Patients in Selected Cities of Ethiopia

Anteneh HAILU1*, Kassahun NEGASHE2, Aweke TASEW2, Medhint GETACHEW2, Tesfaye SISAY1, Tariku JIBAT3, Danel FEKADU4

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–17

1Department of Medical Biotechnology, Institute Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA; e–mail: anteneh.hailu@aau.edu.et, 2African Medical and Research Foundation [AMREF–Ethiopia], P.O.Box 20855/1000, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA; 3Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, P. O. Box 34, Debre zeit, ETHIOPIA, 4Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, P.O.Box1170, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii infection is main cause of abortion, congenital defects and fatality in pregnant women and HIV/AIDS infected individuals respectively. The seroprevalence and risk factor assessment of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and HIV/AIDS infected individuals in Addis Ababa, Jinka, Mojo and Awash towns of Ethiopia was conducted in this study. The study also assessed knowledge and perception of health professionals including physician, nurses and gynecologist, working in antenatal care in selected health institution of different parts of Ethiopia. A cross–sectional study was conducted from October 2011 to March 2012. Sera of 293 pregnant women and 190 in HIV/AIDS infected individuals were analyzed by serological method called Indirect Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay [ELISA]. The total seropostivity of IgG and IgM T. gondii were 89.9% and 28.3% respectively. From 293 pregnant women of study 9.5% were IgG negative and IgM positive and 25.5% were both IgG and IgM positive, which means 28.6% of pregnant women had detectable IgM antibodies during pregnancy. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that study areas, age, residential places, educational status, HIV/AIDS status, ART utilization, pregnancy status, number of pregnancy, stage of pregnancy, history of abortion and number of abortion, cat at home, contact with cat, separate cat house, raw milk and vegetables consumption were significantly associated with seropositivity of T. gondii. From health professionals, 63% know health risk of domestic animals like cat with regards to toxoplasmosis. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat and vegetables (71.2%) were recognized as common source of T. gondii infection by health professionals consumption of raw milk (18.4%), contact with cat faces (14.3%), and drinking unboiled water (6.1%) were also mentioned as important modes of transmission. In this study, 52.7% of health professionals thought toxoplasmosis as important pathogen in HIV infected patients and pregnant women. Seropositivity of T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS infected individuals and pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Jinka, Mojo and Awash towns of Ethiopia is high. Abortion, exposure to cat faces and HIV/AIDS status are main determining risk factors to acquire T. gondii infection in study population. There is also urgent need of incorporating zoonotic diseases concept in medical education and training. These findings are helpful for optimal design of strategies in contribution of health professionals in relation to toxoplasmosis, pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, health Education, screening pregnant women during their antenatal care and in depth epidemiological studies are recommended.

 Key words: Cats; HIV/AIDS; Pregnancy; Health professionals; T. gondii, Zoonosis

ftxt

HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND GASTRO PROTECTIVE STUDIES OF Terminalia arjuna LEAVES EXTRACT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE

Ataa SAID1, Ahlam M. El-FISHAWY2, Siham El-SHENAWY3, Usama W. HAWAS4, Mohamed ABOELMAGD1

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–30

1Pharmacognosy Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, EGYPT. 2Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Giza, EGYPT. 3Pharmacology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, EGYPT. 4Phytochemistry and Plant Systematic Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, EGYPT; e–mail: m.magd83@yahoo.com

Abstract. The methanol extract of T. arjuna leaves was evaluated as hepatoprotective and gastroprotective against Swiss albino rats. In hepatoprotective study the liver damage induced by paracetamol while the gastric lesion induced by absolute ethanol in the gastro protective study. The extract was given orally (250,500 and 1000 mg/kg) in different experimental models in both studies. The extract at dose (500mg/kg) showed significant reduction in ALT serum level by 19.9% while at dose (1000mg/kg) it reduced significantly serum ALT, AST and ALP levels by –26.15,–25.46 and –23.69 % respectively as compared with paracetamol treated group. In the gastro protective study the extract produced significant reduction in the number and severity of mucosal lesion by (–52.1 &–67.3 %, –66.7 &–71.2 % and –68.8 &–77.6%) respectively.

Key words: T. arjuna, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, mucosal lesion

ftxt

 

EVALUATION OF BREEDING POTENTIAL FIELD PEA (Pisum sativum L.) CULTIVARS AND THEIR PROGENIES

 Valentin Ivanov KOSEV

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–37

  Institute of Forage Crops–Pleven, Gen. Vladimir Vazov 89 street, 5800 Pleven, BULGARIA; e–mail: valkosev@hotmail.com

Abstract: The inheritance and gene effects structure were investigated for ten quantitative traits in field cultivars by a full diallel model of four parents–the cultivars Kerpo, Pleven 10, Mir and EFB33. Over dominance was prevalent for most of the traits in both hybrid generations (F1 and F2) except for 1000–seed weights. A non–additive gene action appeared to be more predominant for the inheritance of most traits studied. The fraction of h2/H2 indicated that at least one group of genes controlled dominance for all the traits, namely for seed weight per plant (6), seeds per pod (3). The Н2/4Н1 ratio was close to the expected value of 0.25 for seeds per plant and seed weight per plant, indicating a symmetrical distribution of dominant and recessive genes. Dominant alleles were more frequent in parental forms for the inheritance of most traits except seeds per pod in F1. In the case of seeds per pod (F1) and 1000–seed weight (F1 and F2) a comparatively low difference was established between the coefficient of heritability in narrowand broad sense, indicating that the selection in early generations may be effective. The genotypes with exhibited dominant alleles were EFB33 for plant height, first pod height, internode distance and fertile nodes per plant, Mir for pods per plant, nodes per plant and 1000–seed weight and Pleven 10 for seeds per plant and seed weight per plant. Kerpo had recessive alleles for all the tested traits except seeds per pod.

Key words: breeding, field pea, gene effects, genetic analysis, inheritance

ftxt

OPTIMIZATION OF PHYSICO–CHEMICAL PARAMETERS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF CHEBULINIC ACID FROM MEDICINAL HERBS

Surya Prakash D.V.1, Meena V.2

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–46

1Centre for Biotechnology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam–530003, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. e–mail: prakashsurya55@gmail.com. 2Centre for Biotechnology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam–530003, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. e–mail: meena_sekhar09@yahoo.co.in

Abstract. Chebulinic acid is a phenolic compound found in the fruits of Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) and seeds of Dimocarpus longan (Longan) species etc. It showed many pharmacological activities including inhibition of cancer cell growth like human leukemia K562 cells, colon adenocarcinoma HT–29 cell lines, anti–neisseria gonorrhoeae activity etc. The present studies on optimization of physico–chemical parameters like effects of different solvents, soaking time, extraction time with hexane, particle size, different solvent percentages, different volumes of hexane with ethanol and methanol as solvents, pH and different weight dosages for the extraction of Chebulinic acid from Medicinal herbs. The highest chebulinic acid concentration for optimized conditions of Terminalia chebula fruit, Amla fruit and Longan seeds were 6.2 mg/mL, 4.8 mg/mL and 5.7 mg/mL respectively.

Key words: Chebulinic acid, Terminalia chebula fruit, Amla fruit, Longan seed, Folin–Denis reagent

ftxt

Molecular Characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii from Bikaner, India

HARISH K. CHANGAL1, G. NAGARAJAN2*, R. K. PUROHIT1, SHELESH KUMAR SWAMI2, S.C. MEHTA2 and K.M.L. PATHAK3

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–52

 1Radiation Biology Laboratory, P.G. Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, INDIA. 2National Research Centre on Camel, Post Bag No. 7, Jorbeer, Bikaner–334 001, Rajasthan, INDIA. 3Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi–110001, INDIA.*Corresponding author: Dr. G. Nagarajan, M. V. Sc., Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Southern Regional Research Centre under Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, (CSWRI), Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu–624 103, INDIA; e–mail: camelnag@yahoo.com; gnagarajanars@gmail.com. Phone: +91–4542–276414; Fax: +91–4542–276413

Abstract. In this study, partial nucleotide sequences of cytochrome oxidase (COXI) gene and P–18 protein gene of Hyalomma dromedarii from one humped camels of National Research centre on Camel, Bikaner, India, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the salivary glands of the ticks. Sequence analysis revealed that COXI gene of H. dromedarii from Bikaner shared 99.1–99.2 % sequence identity at the nucleotide level with H .dromedarii isolates from Kenya and Ethiopia, respectively. With other species of Hyalomma, H. dromedarii from India exhibited 86.2–90.2 nucleotide identity. With other genera of the family Ixodidae, Hv. dromedarii from India showed 82.9–84.78 % nucleotide identity. But, salivary gland protein gene P–18 of H. dromedarii from Bikaner was having 90.4 % sequence identity with that of H. asiaticum.

Key words: Hyalomma dromedarii; Dromedary camel; National Research centre on Camel; Bikaner; India

ftxt

 

STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOLOGICAL PREPARATION BIO–ONE IN SPRING FORAGE PEAS (Pisum SativumL.) UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

Ivan PACHEV1, Tatiana, MALYUK2*

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–59

 1Institute of Forage Crops–Pleven, BULGARIA; e–mail: Iv_Pachev@abv.bg. 2*Melitopol Research Fruit Growing Station named after M.F. Sidorenko of the Institute of Horticulture of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of UKRAINE

Abstract. The microbiological preparation BIO–ONE is a 100% natural liquid concentrated microbiological product providing 20 kg of active nitrogen/decar. It facilitates the absorption of the residual phosphorus and potassium and retains moisture. BIO–ONE does not contain genetically modified organisms. It is recognized by all organizations controlling the organic farming, including OMRI Institute. It could be used both in organic and traditional agriculture. With its gradual application in soil the microbiological preparation BIO–ONE contributes to increasing soil organic matter and also protects it from wind erosion. The application of the microbiological preparation BIO–ONE helps for obtaining the maximum efficiency of the used mineral fertilizers. The microbiological preparation BIO–ONE has a positive impact on the yield of peas seeds. After treatment of the crop with the microbiological preparation BIO–ONE the highest yield was obtained at a dose of treatment of 0.9 g/100 m2–185.0 kg/da, followed by the variants treated at a dose of 0.12 g/100 m2–167.0 kg/da and 0.6 g/100 m2–165.0 kg/da. At the lowest dose of treatment of 0.3 g/100 m2 and the fertilized control the yield was equal–158.0 kg/da. The lowest yield was obtained from the control variant. It increases the wheat yield as after–effect after treatment of peas at concentration of 0.6 to 0.12 g/100 m2 as the wheat yield is raised by 43 kg/da compared to the untreated control. The highest yield was obtained for the variant of peas fertilized with N4P8–as the yield exceeded by 57 kg/da the control that was not fertilized and treated. It is noticed also that at lower doses of treatment the quantity of siftings is lower as it goes up at higher doses of treatment.

Key words: fertilizing, bacterial fertilizers, peas

ftxt