EFFECT OF COPPER LEVELS IN THE CULTURE MEDIUM ON SHOOT REGENERATION IN PEPPER

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–86

Stanislava GROZEVA

Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, 32 Brezovsko shosse Str., 4003 Plovdiv, BULGARIA
e–mail: Stanislava_grozeva@abv.bg

Abstract. Present study was carried out to establish the influence of CuSO4.5H2O on regeneration process of Capsicum annuum L. varieties Stryama and Maritsa using cotyledon explants. Increasing the concentration of CuSO4.5H2O (0.2 0.5 and 1.0 mgL–1) in culture medium stimulated shoot buds differentiation and elongation only in explants of variety Maritsa, while in variety Stryama such effect was not observed. Significant variation among R1 plants and differences between R1 plants and their parent were obtained. For breeding purposes lines 79–2–1 and 79–2–7 from initial variety Stryama has the best complex of traits.
Keyword: Pepper, Somaclonal variation, Plant–regenerants.

STUDY ON RESISTANCE OF MAIZE HYBRIDS TO SMUT OF MAIZE (Ustilago maydis)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–81

Iliana IVANOVA, Lyubomir IVANOV, Gergana IVANOVA–KOVACHEVA

Institute of agriculture and seed science “Obraztsov chiflik”–Rousse
7007, prof. Ivan Ivanov 1, BULGARIA, tri_dve@abv.bg

Abstract. The objective of the work was the degree of attack of smut of maize on a part of the collection of maize hybrids of IASS “Obraztsov chiflik”–Rousse, to be studied under conditions of IASS. The analysis of the damage of the studied pathogens in the latest hybrids of IASS “Obraztsov chiflik”–Rousse showed that some of them manifest resistance. The highest resistance is in Eks 24–I, Eks 1–I, Eks 16–I hybrids. They could be used as sources of resistance. Eks 12–I, Eks 15–I, Eks 11–I, Eks 8–I, Eks 10–I, Eks 23–I are susceptible.
Keyword: maize, Ustilago maydis, resistance.

EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND HERITABILITY IN WINTER FIELD PEA GENOTYPES

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–74

Valentin Ivanov KOSEV

Institute of Forage Crops–Pleven, Gen. Vladimir Vazov 89 Street,
5800 Pleven, BULGARIA, valkosev@hotmail.com

Abstract. An analysis was carried out during 2011–2013 on eight field pea genotypes. On the basis of the obtained results, the following conclusions may be drawn and used for further research on the quantitative traits on forage pea and its application in breeding and the development of new varieties: Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for the all investigated traits without seed weight per plant. The results of coefficient of variation analysis showed that the genotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the phenotypic coefficient of variation for vegetation period. For all traits studied with the exception of seeds per pod and seed weight per plant showed high heritability, indicated that these traits could be improved through selection procedure. Line №6 was classified as high general adaptability to environment for pod per plant, seeds per plant and vegetation period.
Keyword: breeding; genotypes, Pisum sativum; productivity.

INSECTICIDE PRODUCTS OF DIFFERENT GROUPS AGAINST Plagionotus floralis Pall.

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–69

Evgeniya D. ZHEKOVA1, Ivelina M. NIKOLOVA2

1Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflik”, 7007–Rousse, str. “Prof. Ivan Ivanov” №1, BULGARIA, e–mail: e.d.zhekova@abv.bg
2Institute of Forage Crops, 5800–Pleven, str. ”Gen. Vl. Vazov” №89, BULGARIA,
e–mail: imnikolova@abv.bg

Abstract. At IASS “Obraztsov chiflik”–Rousse during the period 2010–2015 the effectiveness of eight insecticide products of different groups were tested under laboratory conditions: Nurelle D, Actara 25 WG, Reldan 40 EC, Karate Zeon, Konfidor 70 WG, Decis 2.5 EC, Mospilan 20 SP and Kalypso 480 SC, against adults of Plagionotus floralis. Test Method for contact toxicity of preparations in application to substrate was used. It was found that the insecticides: Karate Zeon, Decis 2.5 EC and Kalypso 480 SC were characterized with rapid initial actiivity and high effectiveness against the adults of P. floralis and are suitable for control before oviposition. Neonicotinoids based on acetamiprid and thiamethoxam manifested unsatisfactory effectiveness. The Analysis of variance showed that the type of insecticide applied most strongly influenced on the effectiveness–46.3% of the total variation. The strength of the effects of duration was considerably less pronounced, but statistically significant–4.0%.
Keyword: Plagionotus floralis, insecticides, effectiveness.

OM NeemAzal–T/S AND Pyrethrum AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE PEA PESTS AND SEED QUALITY

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–60

Ivelina NIKOLOVA*, Natalia GEORGIEVA

Institute of Forage Crops, 5800–Pleven, Vl. Vazov Street, 89, BULGARIA,
*e–mail: imnikolova@abv.bg

Abstract. A study was conducted on the influence of biological insecticides (NeemAzal and Pyrethrum, applied alone and in combinations with organic products) to Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population density and rate of damaged seeds. The change of chemical composition in damaged by pea weevil and Cydia nigricana Fabr. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) seeds was found. The treatments were performed in budding and budding and flowering stages. The toxic effect of biological insecticides Pyrethrum and NeemAzal after treatment in budding and flowering stages was considerably higher in comparison to the single use. The weevil density was decreased at the greatest rate after treatment with Pyrethrum + Biofa (37.5%) among biological treatments. The biological and synthetic products use had positively influence on the crude protein, crude fiber and phosphorus content. The treatment in budding and flowering stages led to a stronger increase in the crude protein and phosphorus content to a single treatment.
Keyword: NeemAzal, Pyrethrum, organic products, Bruchus pisorum, crude protein, phosphorus.

APPLICATION OF RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM) IN CONDITION OPTIMIZATION FOR ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION FROM PEEL OF CINNAMON (Cinnamomum cassia BL.)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–51

Le Pham Tan Quoc1

1Institute of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Industrial university of Ho Chi Minh City
No. 12 Nguyen Van Bao street, Ward 4, Go Vap Dictrict, Ho Chi Minh City, VIETNAM.
Corresponding author’s email: lephamtanquoc@yahoo.com

Abstract. This research shows some parameters about the ratio of water/peel, distilling time, volume of salt and components of essential oil after receiving process. It also made clearly the relationship between some factors for essential oil production; the yield was estimated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Circumscribed (CCC) design. The optimized equation was performed below: y=2.6+0.09x1+0.05x3–0.06x12–0.09x22–0.04x32. There is the relationship between the distilling time, ratio of water/peel and volume of salt with the yield of essential oil. The maximum value of essential oil was 2.65 ml (~ 6.5 %, v/w) (y), distilling time (x1) in 234 minutes at approximate temperature 100°C, water : peel ratio (x2) was 10.2 : 1 and salt concentration (NaCl) was 10.91%. The factor can influence strongly on the yield of essential oil production was distilling time and rate of water/peel. They are absolutely independent and not interaction. The received essential oil from the Cinnamomum cassia BL was analyzed by GC–MS method. Some compounds were recognized as 3–Phenylpropenal (85.5 %) which was the main components.The other components were also detected with tiny amount such as Germacrene, δ Cadinene, Coumarin. This essential oil can inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, for instance Escherichia coli, Coliforms.
Keyword: Aromatic spices, Clevenger, distillation, food industry, GC–MS.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUNFLOWER LATE–SPRING MIXTURES FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION IN A FOOTHILL REGION OF CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAINS (BULGARIA)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–45

Vladimir LINGORSKI

Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600 Troyan,
281, Vassil Levski Street, BULGARIA; e–mail: vilievl@yahoo.com

Abstract. During the 2013–2014 period in the Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture (RIMSA) in Troyan (Bulgaria) a comparative study of sunflower late–spring mixtures for green forage production was carried out. For this purpose were studied mixtures with legume forage crop (spring field peas) and some cereal species (spring oats, maize and sorghum–sudan grass). It was found that the most productivity (6.31 t.ha–1 green mass and 1.34 t.ha–1 dry mass) was prepared from the mixture of sunflower and maize, which is more respectively with 85.04 and 162.75 % compared to the sunflower monoculture (Standard). The yields excess in the other studied mixtures was less and ranged from 5.87 to 25.22 % for the green mass and from 21.57 to 68.63 % for the dry matter. Regardless of the various components, in the sunflower pure and mixed crops the weed infestation was a relatively low, and it had no significant influence of the forage quality.
Keyword: Annual late–spring mixtures, Sunflower, Cereal and legume species, Forage indicators.

EVALUATION OF DIET QUALITY AND NUTRIENT INTAKES AMONG MACEDONIAN ADOLESCENTS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–38

Elena JOSHEVSKA1, Gordana DIMITROVSKA1, Katerina BOJKOVSKA1, Mila ARAPCESKA1, Vangelica JOVANOVSKA1, Tatijana KALEVSKA2

1PhD, University St.’’Kliment Ohridski’’, Faculty of biotechnical sciences, Partizanska b.b– 7000, Bitola, MACEDONIA,
2PhD, University St.’’Kliment Ohridski’’, Faculty of technology and technical sciences, St.Titogradska No, 42, Veles, MACEDONIA
*Corresponding author E–mail:ejoshevska@yahoo.com

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine diet quality, food habits and nutrient intakes among Macedonian adolescents. A group of two hundred fifty adolescents in the boarding house “Kocho Racin”–Bitola, R. Macedonia, both sexes, between 19 to 24 years of age, represented the study subject. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for mass and frequency as well as energy and nutritional components were used. The obtained results showed the frequency, energy and nutritional value of food products into the structure of daily meals. The results indicated that it is necessary to reduce the energetic value by reducing the intake of fat and protein, and to increase the intake of carbohydrates in both population groups respectively. The average intake of calcium, with consideration of the recommended daily allowance (RDA), is adequate in both sexes.
Keyword: adolescents, diet quality, eating habits, nutritional elements.

CHANGES IN SOME ARTIFICIAL MEADOW GRASSLANDS UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAIN

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–33

Dimitar MITEV1, Galina NAYDENOVA2

1Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600 Troyan, 281 Vasil Levski Str. BULGARIA. e–mail: dimitarmtv@mail.bg
2Experimental station of soybean, 5200 Pavlikeni, 61 Ruski Str. BULGARIA, e–mail: gmvg@abv.bg

Abstract. The survey includes a number of conclusions about the behaviour of some meadow grasslands grown individually or in a mixture among them. They are situated over the slopes of the Central Balkan Mountain. There are differences both in their exposure towards the four cardinal points and diversity in soil gleying. The botanical composition of swards is rather variable. It is in a direct relation to the habitat of each of them. The sown meadow species of local origin predominated in established grasslands most of the time during the experiments. Self–sowing of other meadow species of local origin was found. It is considered that this behavior arises from the presence or lack of synchronization with the rhythm of Nature. It is supposed that each “structural unit” (grass combination) has a peculiar “projection in Time”, the “level of energy saturation”, which each of them has reached, has a direct relation to the formation process. It was concluded that each concrete variant represents a peculiar energy–information system of a different order, with the respective durability both in individual and evolutionary plan, with all the ensuing consequences.
Keyword: Balkan Mountain, slopes, meadow grasses, hypotheses.

Dynamics of some bio–productive parameters of winter RAPESEED MIXTURES FORAGE IN A FOOTHILL REGION IN BULGARIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(12)–27

Vladimir LINGORSKI

Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600 Troyan, 281, Vassil Levski Street, BULGARIA; e–mail: vilievl@yahoo.com

Abstract. During the 2013–2014 period in the Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture (RIMSA) in Troyan (Bulgaria) a comparative study of winter rapeseed mixtures for green forage production was carried out. For this purpose were studied mixtures with legume forage crops (wintering field peas and winter vetch) and some cereal species (winter barley and triticale). It has been found that on average for two harvesting seasons (2013–2014 and 2014–2015) a more forage productivity had the winter rapeseed mixtures with legume forage crops. The most active green and dry mass (respectively 2.36 t.ha–1 and 0.39 t.ha–1) was obtained from the mixture with wintering field peas which exceeded the standard crop (winter rapeseed monoculture) respectively with 35.63 and 39.29%. Regardless of the various components, in the winter rapeseed pure and mixed crops the weed infestation was a relatively low, and it had no significant influence of the forage quality.
Keyword: Annual winter mixtures, Rapeseed, Cereal and legume species, Forage indicators.