DYNAMICS OF SOME CHEMICAL AND PRODUCTIVE INDICATORS OF ANNUAL SPRING CEREALS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAINS IN BULGARIA

VLINGORSKI

Abstract. The comparative evaluation of annual spring forage cereals under the conditions of Central Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria (Troyan region) proved that over the period from 2002 to 2004, the highest dry matter yield was harvested from sudan–grass, followed by sorghum–sudan–grass hybrid and millet. All of them exceeded the standard crop (maize) by 37.71%, 29.29% and 21.04%, accordingly. The highest value (11.39%) of crude protein content was observed for oats and of crude fat content–for millet. Maximum values of crude ash, calcium and phosphorus in dry mass had the oats. The highest crude protein yield (0.74 t/ha) was obtained from millet, and it was 12.12% higher than maize (standard crop).

Key words: annual spring cereals, dry mass yields, forage chemical composition, crude protein yields, Central Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria.

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INVESTIGATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GROWTH HORMONE TYPE 1 (GH1) GENE HOMOLOGUE IN THE SALMO TRUTTA CASPIUS

 Abolhasan REZAEI, Sheyda AKHSHABI, Hamid Reza JAMALZADEH

Abstract. Salmo trutta caspius growth hormone genes (GH) homologue are used as models for studies in comparative variation breeding, transgenic and growth body weight. Hence variation genetic was studied between the salmo trutta caspius growth hormone gene1 (GH1) and Salmo salar. In this study, isolation and characterization of growth hormone of gene type 1 (GH1) in the salmo trutta caspius, recognizing full length DNA GH1 in strain salmo trutta caspius on the gel electrophoresis. First, DNA genomic extracted from blood samples of adult salmo trutta caspius and from places north of Iran was done. The method of DNA extraction (absorption on the fiber glass (kit) were used. One pair of primers was designed towards GH1 gene homologue. DNA template concentration, annealing temperature and extension time was monitored to optimize them. PCR products have been compared between strains on the gel electrophoresis. Four fragments from nucleotide of 1 to 2541 were sequenced. The PCR products were analyzed by BLASTn. Results are shown; there were high homology within strains, salmo trutta caspius and salmo salar 96% approximately. Moreover, our discussion are shown about sequencing homologue GH1 of salmo trutta caspius populations possible have been common ancestor with different species salmo trutta.

Key words: Salmo salar, Salmo trutta caspius, Growth hormone gene type 1, Sequencing, DNA

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QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF FRESH MARC–RAW MATERIAL WITH VALUABLE COMPOSITIONn

Steliana RODINO, M. BUTU, Diana GOLEA, Alina BUTU

Abstract. The present study pursued the possibility of extraction of sugars and other useful components from fresh marc, by diffusion method. The biological material was represented by two types of marc: one from Greaca Vineyard–Wine Research and Production Station and one from Vinalcool Focsani. It was studied the influence of temperature, time, pH and the amount of washing solution on the diffusion of sugars and other useful components. Extraction efficiency was monitored by determining total sugars in the diffusion solutions, and by measuring the volume of solution. Besides the main components which can be found in large quantities: sugars, nitrogen and potassium tartrate, the fresh marc contains, in various concentrations, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, also. These ingredients are partially passing into the diffusion solution, some remaining in the washed marc. For this reason, the marc continues to remain, even after diffusion, a raw material that can be further used for valorification.

Key words: grape marc, vinification, secondary products

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CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIETIES AND POPULATIONS BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL FOR SEED YIELD UNDER THE SOIL AND WEATHER GROWING CONDITIONS OF THE TROYAN REGION

Boriana CHURKOVA, Vladimir LINGORSKI

Abstract: During the period 2008–2010 in the experimental field of RIMSA Troyan on light gray pseudo podzolic soil were tested in the following varieties and populations birdsfoot trefoil; Shumen, Nesebar, Kiten, Tryavna, Sadovo, as well as genotypes of the varieties: V. Podolyanskii (Russia), Dedinovskii (Russia), Martanskii (Russia), Zora (Serbia), Bokor (Serbia), Smolenskii (Russia). The results from seed yield showed wide ranges of variation for the different years and on mean for the period: The tested varieties and populations were with high productive potential for the seeds yield. The differences in Number of pods/raceme, Number of racemes / plant, Number of seeds / pod, 1000–seed weight and conditioned also different values of formed seed yield of the tested varieties and populations. The seed yield average for the period of study in all tested cultivars and populations were superior the standard variety Targovishte 1.The highest seed yield was obtained from the Dedinovskii variety–0.260 t/ha, followed by Zora and Bokor–0.255 t/ha for a three year period. The higher seed yield of the tested birdsfoot trefoil varieties compared with the standard is due to the formation of the larger Number of pods/raceme, Number of racemes/plant, Number of seeds/ pod and 1000–seed weight. The correlation between seed yield and 1000–seed weight was very strong correlation (r=0.861786).

Key words: birdsfoot trefoil, varieties, populations, seed yield, structural elements, correlation associations

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CORRELATIVE DEPENDENCES BETWEEN FORAGE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CRUDE PROTEIN PRODUCTIVITY OF GRASS–LEGUME MIXTURE UNDER VARIABLE MINERAL FERTILIZING

V. LINGORSKI, Boryana CHURKOVA

Abstract. During the 2001–2003 period in RIMSA, Troyan the correlative relationships between forage chemical composition and crude protein productivity of grass mixture containing perennial ryegrass and birdsfoot trefoil under variable mineral fertilizing was investigated. The following variants in the experiment were included:

1. Unfertilized variant (standard); 

2. Annual soil mineral fertilizing with P80K80;

3. Annual soil fertilizing with N80P80K80;

4. 1st year–fertilizing with P80K80, 2nd year–fertilizing with N80P80K80, 3rd year–fertilizing with P80K80;

5. 1st year and 2nd year–fertilizing with P80K80, 3rd year–fertilizing with N80P80K80.

There were positive correlations during annual mineral fertilizing (var. 2 and var. 3) with crude protein productivity for only two of the chemical composition components–for var. 2 with regard to crude ash content (r=0.7695–strong) and calcium (0.8974–very strong), and for var. 3–weak correlation between crude ash (r=0.4179) and crude fibre (r=0.4731). There were positive correlations for var. 4 of variable mineral fertilizing regarding to crude ash content (r=0.2506–weak) and crude fibre (r=0.7178–middle). There were positive correlations for var. 5 with four of the indicators–calcium (r=0.4184–weak), crude ash (r=0.5319–middle), crude protein (r=0.2340–weak) and crude fat (r=0.0992–very weak correlation).

Key words: grass–legume mixture, variable mineral fertilizing, forage chemical composition, crude protein yields, correlative dependences.

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SAFETY AND QUALITY OF SOME VEGETABLE OILS MARKETED LOCALLY IN THE GOVERNORATE OF AL–HASA, SAUDI ARABIA

Najat A. AL–ABBAD, Amany M. M. BASUNY

Abstract. The aim of this research to identify the pattern of consumption of vegetable oils to families in the Governorate of Al–Hasa, Saudi Arabia, also, examining the safety and quality of some varieties vegetable oil marketed locally, and compare the results obtained from physical and chemical properties of eight oil samples with Saudi Arabia and International standard specification. Data were collected by the survey form was distributed to the housewife and the form included questions about the types of oils most often used in cooking and frying. The results obtained indicated that the oil most commonly used in cooked and frying foods is sunflower oil (Noor brand) (51.20% and 48.00%), respectively. On the other hand, the results of physical and chemical properties showed the significant differences between different kinds of oils. Also, there are significant differences in the values of oxidative stability, which ranged from 7.04 hr. for sunflower oil to 44 hr. for palm oil. Also, found that there were clear differences in the composition of fatty acids of oil samples, where results showed that predominant unsaturated fatty acids are linoleic acid or oleic acid and predominant saturated fatty acids is palmitic in most oil samples. Also, found that the percentage of trans fatty acids had reached 1.17 % and 5.66% in olive oil (Al–Wazeir brand) and oil (Al–Arabi brand), respectively. These percentages more than allowed in the Saudi Arabia and International standard specifications. While, mineral content of oil samples did not exceed the permissible limits according to the specifications.

Key words: oils, fats, fatty acids, oxidative stability, trans fatty acids.

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THE SIS ALGORITHM AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Andrei BĂNCILĂ, Mihaela PĂUN, Ştefan POPESCU, Laura PĂUN, George ROATĂ, Iris MATEESCU, Marian BUŢU, Andrei PĂUN, Manuela SIDOROFF

Abstract. A systematic use of the Monte Carlo method appeared since the early days of electronic computing and since then it is more present in different scientific research fields. Therefore, many techniques were developed based on this method and one of them is called sequential importance sampling. This technique is an adaptation of the Monte Carlo method that can be used to better extract samples form the domain using an importance weight function.

Key words: importance sampling, sequencial Monte Carlo, inference, importance weight

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PRODUCTION OF MAYONNAISE FROM DATE PITS OIL

Amany M. M. BASUNY, Maliha A. ALMARZOOQ

Abstract. Chemical composition of the residual pits from processing of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) variety khalas from AL–Hasa region–Saudi Arabia was investigated. The extracted oil from residual pits were analyzed for their physico–chemical proprieties, (refractive index, colour, acid value, peroxide value, iodine number, saponificaion number and unsaponifiable matter), total phenols tocopherol content, fatty acids composition, Hydrocarbons and sterols compounds by gas liquid chromatography, oxidative stability by Rancimat method at 100°C±2°C. Minerals content of date pits were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Date pits oil was used to replace oil in producing mayonnaise and sensory qualities were evaluated as compared with commercial mayonnaise was prepared from corn oil. The data demonstrate that mayonnaise containing date pits oil was superior in sensory characteristics as compared with control manufactured from corn oil. Results showed that the date pits oil could be used as nontraditional oil in some food processing such as mayonnaise products.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHENOLIC CONTENT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS

DOI: 10.7904/ 2068 – 4738 – III(6) – 111

Marian BUTU, Nicoleta ANDREI, Alina BUTU, Steliana RODINO

Abstract.The aim of the present study was to draw a comparative analysis of the content in flavones and polyphenols of the hydro alcoholic extracts obtained from two medicinal plants, namely artichoke (leaves) and respectively, licorice (root) according to the origin of the vegetal material and the method used in the preparation of the extracts.The plants used in the experiments are two indigenous medicinal plants belonging to wild and cultivated flora in Romania. Artichocke (Cynara scolymus) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) were purchased from three local companies trading medicinal plants: Plafar, Vitaplant and Franco Impex. It was evaluated the composition of the extracts in terms of the content of polyphenolic compounds expressed in caffeic acid and flavone compounds content expressed in rutin. Plant extracts were obtained by two different methods of preparation: ultrasonation and maceration with intermittent shaking.

Keywords: flavones, polyphenols, vegetal hidroalcoolic extracts

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MONITORING OF THE ENTOMOFAUNA IN ECOLOGICAL CROP ROTATION

DOI: 10.7904/2068 – 4738 – III(6) – 104

Evgeniya D. ZHEKOVA

 Abstract: Duringtheperiod 2009–2010 a monitoring of entomofauna was performed in environmentally justified crop rotation including rotation of legumes (beans, soybean) and cereals (wheat, wintering oats) in two variantscontrol (without fertilization), andfoliarfertilizationby Humustim humate fertilizer. Conventional entomological methods were used for determination of species and population density of harmful plants and their entomophaga. The results were processed by crops. Differences in species composition of entomofauna were found in variants fertilized by Humustim, compared to those without fertilization. In no one of the four crops pests in density over Economic Threshold Level (ETL) were detected. Diversity of entomophaga was explained via the favorable ecological environmental conditions and namely by the presence of the trophic factor and the lack of chemical treatments with insecticides.

Keywords: entomofauna, ecological crop rotation.