SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF WOMEN FARMERS AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE IN DELTA STATE AND IMPLICATION FOR EXTENSION SERVICES

DOI: 10.7904/2068 – 4738 – III(6) – 97

 Uchenna Ngozi UZOKWE and Josiah Chidiebere OKONKWO

 

Abstract: This study examined women farmers’ survival strategies against climate change in Delta State. The specific objectives are to: identify the adaptation strategies used by them to mitigate the effects of climate change, discover the challenges to adaptation strategies used and determine if the demographic characteristics of the women farmers influence their choice of adaptation strategies. Proportional sampling method was used to select 215 women farmers from the three Agricultural Zones of Delta State. The study revealed that the women farmers’ used these strategies to mitigate the effect of climate change on their agricultural practices: reduced use of chemical fertilizers (89%), use of organic fertilizers (88.25%), integrated pest management (85%), shifting cultivation (89.75%), crop rotation (75.50%), mulching (90.75%), cooling of pens (76.75%), tree planting (85.11%), change of crop varieties (75.75%), use of animals and birds that are more heat tolerant (88.25%). The most important challenge to adaptation strategies is lack of information (79.08%).Lack of money (49.52%) and inadequate labour (48.43%) are also worthy of note. In spite of the fact that farmers’ have other information sources apart from extension service, extension has been institutionalized to provide information and other agricultural services to farmers, therefore it needs to be well positioned and better equipped in the state to be relevant in meeting the needs of farmers.

 Keywords: adaptation measures, climate change, extension services, women farmers

 

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF FRESHWATER PRAWN MACROBRACHIUM VOLLENHOVENII (HERKLOT, 1857) CAUGHT IN WARRI RIVER

DOI: 10.7904/2068 – 4738 – III(6) – 86

 Nkeonyeasua Florence OLELE, Prekeyi TAWARI-FUFEYIN and Josiah Chidiebere OKONKWO

Abstract: A total number of 338 specimens of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii were bought from fisher folks who fished from Ubeji, Jala and Soroghagbene; but marketed their landings at Ubeji. Specimens were collected at monthly intervals between March and November, 2011. The male to female sex ratio established was 1:2:3. The size at first maturity was 9.0 cm for males and 10.0 cm for females. The length–weight relationship revealed an increase in total length of each specimen as body weight increased. The regression coefficient ‘r’ was significant at p&< 0.05 for male (0.901) and female (0.644) specimens. An average condition factor of 3.9 and 2.74 was recorded for males and females respectively. The Gonado–Somatic–Index (GSI) was generally higher, especially during the month of July for females (0.60) than for males (0.50). Distinct histological changes were observed in the gonads of both sexes. Gonad development revealed five distinct stages (dominant, developing, developed, ripe and spent) for both sexes. Fecundity ranged between 5,540–28,470 eggs, and was highly correlated with total length (0.979) but not with body weight (0.185). Fecundity was highest in the month of July (20,113) and lowest in the month of August (6,140). It could be concluded that matured specimens probably spawn, in March and in July, when GSI were at their peaks. This pattern of breeding suggests that they were capable of multiple spawning within a single reproductive season.

Key words: length–weight relationship, condition factor, GSI, maturity stages, fecundity and Macrobrachium vollenhovenii

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