EFFECT OF A NOVEL TECHNOLOGY (AIR AND VACUUM FRYING) ON SENSORY EVALUATION AND ACRYLAMIDE GENERATION IN FRIED POTATO CHIPS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–101

Amany, Mohamed Mohamed BASUNY1*, Hala, Hazam Al OATIBI2

 1Oils and Fats Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, EGYPT

2Food Science and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Foods, King Faisal University, SAUDI ARABIA

*Corresponding authors: dramany_basuny@yahoo.com

Abstract. The objective of this work was to sturdy the effect of different frying process as a novel technology (air and vacuum) compared with traditional frying process. The potato chips were fried in both air frying machines (Tefal Actifry) at 180 ° C ± 5 ° C for 40 min and vacuum frying at (120 ° C, 5.37 Kpa absolute pressure) for 40 min, 20 min/batch compared with traditional frying process at 180 ° C ± 5 ° C for 40 min, 20/ batch. After frying, the moisture content, oil uptake, acrylamide content and sensory characteristics were determined. Also, changes in some chemical properties of oil extracted from fried potato chips by different frying process were determined. Results indicated that the moisture content, oil uptake and acrylamide content in fried potato chips by (air and vacuum) frying process were significantly lower than fried potato chips by traditional frying process. Changes in some chemical properties (Acid value, peroxide value, polar, polymer and oxidized fatty acids contents) of oil extracted from fried potato were significantly higher in traditional frying process than (air and vacuum) frying process. Sensory characteristics of fried potato chips by new methods of frying (Air and vacuum) surprised on fried potato chips for traditional frying process. Air and vacuum frying can therefore be considered suitable methods of preparing potato chips for modern people who consume excessive oils and are interested in healthier and high quality products.

Keyword: Vacuum frying, air frying, oil uptake, sensory properties, acrylamide content.

EFFECT OF ORANGE ‘‘Citrus sinensis’’ PEEL FROM ALGERIA IN FOOD

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–97

 

Ouldyerou KARIMA*, Ibri KADA, Bouhadi DJILALI, Hariri AHMED, Meddah BOUMEDIENNE, Tirtouil AICHA

 Laboratory of Bioconversion; Microbiological engineering and safety,

Faculty of Science; Department of Biology; University of Mascara, Mascara, ALGERIA

*Corresponding author: mhanine11@yahoo.fr

Abstract. Due to rapid growth of the food processing industry and the consumption of processed foods, the demand for natural antimicrobial agents is on the rise. Consumers have become more aware about the health effects of the synthetic preservatives used in food. Hence natural preservatives are developed to meet the demand of consumers. These natural antimicrobials are developed either from plants or their parts, animals or even microorganisms. Even the waste generated from the food industries is being considered as an alternative to produce natural antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to utilize the waste generated from the citrus fruit processing (peel) industry. This study was to utilize the powder from the peel of Citrus sinensis in food (Oil of olive and cream dessert) to preserve their quality, this peel can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant activity so food preservation purpose.

Keyword: Citrus sinensis peel, powder, food, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE BIOGAS YIELD OF YELLOW YAM BRUTE CO–DIGESTED WITH COW PAUNCH MANURE IN BATCH MODE

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–89

Ifeanyi Chuba Edwin UMEGHALU1, Josiah Chidiebere OKONKWO2

 1Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, NIGERIA

2Department of Animal Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author: umeghaluice@gmail.com

Abstract. Anaerobic digesters were used in a study to compare cumulative biogas yield from yellow yam brute, cow paunch and yellow yam brute co–digested with cow paunch manure. It was found out that the mixture slurry of yellow yam brute mixed with cow paunch (YYB+CP) had the highest cumulative biogas yield of 668.65 mL/TMS than the cumulative biogas yield of 587.86 mL/TMS and 307.96 mL/TMS obtained from the single base line substrates of cow paunch and yellow yam brute, respectively within the 35 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). It was also observed that YYB+CP and cow paunch (CP) produced almost equal quantity of cumulative biogas yield of 398.76 mL/TMS within the first 15 days of observation compared with cumulative biogas yield 178.45 mL/TMS produced by yellow yam brute (YYB) within the same HRT. It was also observed that gas production reduced seriously in mono–digested substrates YYB and Cp compared with the co–digestate because of lack of synergistic nutrients. It is generally observed that co–digestion of more than one substrate increase cumulative biogas yield. The trend of cumulative biogas yield at the end of 35 days hydraulic retention time was YYB+CP > CP > YYB. This study is aimed to evaluate the performance of biogas production from yellow yam brute mixed with cow paunch manure, and to compare its cumulative biogas yield with cow paunch and yellow yam brute digested as mono–digestate in batch mode.

Keyword: Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Substrate, Co–digestion, Cow paunch, Yellow yam brute.

CLONING THE COTTON rrn23–rrn5 REGION FOR DEVELOPING A UNIVERSAL INTERFAMILY PLASTIDIAL VECTOR

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–81

Elham GHASEMI1, Bahram Baghban KOHNEHROUZ2*

 1Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN

*2Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, IRAN

*Corresponding authors: bahramrouz@yahoo.com; ely64bio@gmail.com

Abstract. Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages in plant biotechnology, it has been highly proficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient semi lethal selection procedure along with the inefficient recombination through heterologous flanking regions used in transformation vectors prevented this technology to major crops. However, due to the published plastidial genomic sequences and the distinct features of their genomic parts lead the scientists to use of specific and new regions in transformation vectors. In this work, we worked out rrn23–rrn5 fragment as new flanking regions for Malvaceae, Caricaseae, Rutaceae and Solanaceae families by nucleotide homology search. Therefore, the PCR–amplified rrn23–rrn5 region was cloned into the cloning vector using competent cells of E.coli strains DH5α. The sequencing results showed the high homology compared to chloroplast genome of Gossypium sp. with identities of 99 % values.

Keyword: Malvaceae, flanking region, plastid, trnI, trnA, vector.

FISH SPECIES ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF RIVER UKE, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–73

Simi Rose ALAMBA*, Gabriel Robert OKAYI, Paul Aunde ANUNNE

 1Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author E–mail: simialamba@yahoo.co.uk, Phone No: +2348067036878

Abstract. A study was conducted to assess fish species abundance and diversity of River Uke, Uke, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Fish were sampled from three sites, upper (A), middle (B) and lower (C) courses of the river. The study lasted for ten months from June 2014 to March 2015. A total of two thousand, one hundred and twenty six (2,126) fish comprising of 7 families and 11 species were sampled. Seasonal fish abundance of River Uke revealed that average monthly catch in the wet season was 25 % lower than in the dry season. Cichlidae dominated the sampled fish families accounting for 26.20 % of total catch while Latidae was least abundant with 6.21 %. Monthly fish abundance was dominated by three species, namely, Clarias gariepinus (18.44 %), Tilapia zilli (14.44 %) and Oreochromis niloticus (11.76 %) all accounting for 44.64% of the total catch. The trend of monthly fish abundance also showed a bi–modal peak with the minor peak observed in March (260) and the major peak in November (292). Fish abundance by sites revealed individual catches of 671, 365 and 1090 in Site A, B and C, respectively. Total Shannon–Wiener Diversity index of River Uke in this study was 2.312 and the index values were generally higher in the wet season (except October) than in the dry season. Total Simpson Index calculated for River Uke in this study was 0.892.

Keyword: Fish, species abundance, diversity, seasonal, River Uke.

PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN HYDROTHERMALLY PROCESSED ORANGE (Citrus sinensis) PULP MEAL

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–68

Kizito UMOGBAI, Lateef Oloyede TIAMIYU, Paul A. ANUNNE

 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author E–mail: *Tel: +2347057790299 e–mail: researchquestion111@gmail.com

Abstract. Orange pulp is a large by–product of orange processing industries, hence an important source of unconventional feeds stuff of agro by–product origin, however, it contain antinutritional factors which limits it utilization on a large scale in animal nutrition, this study seeks to improve the nutritional value of orange pulp meal though hydrothermal processing. Fresh orange pulp were collected from orange sellers in Makurdi town, and divided into five batches, four of these batches were subjected to varying period of hydrothermal processing namely, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, while one of batch was kept as control without processing. Result reveals significant reduction in Oxalate, Tannin and Phytic acid as the time of processing progressed, however, crude protein increased till the 10th min and significantly reduced thereafter, contrary to this, fat and Ash significantly reduce as the time increases, nutritional trials with various animals are recommended to evaluate feed utilization as a result of this processing method.

Keyword: Tannin, Crude protein, Antinutritional factor, Unconventional feed stuff.

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF FORAGE PEA ORGANIC PRODUCTION

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–60

Natalia GEORGIEVA*, Ivelina NIKOLOVA1, Vladimir DIMITROV2, Daniela DIMITROVA2

 1Institute of Forage crops, 5800–Pleven, Gen. V. Vazov Street, 89, Pleven, BULGARIA

2Institute of viticulture and enology, 5800–Pleven, Kala Tepe Street, 1, Pleven, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: Е–mail: imnatalia @abv.bg

Abstract. The presented evaluation provides an opportunity to be compared the economic results at different variants of forage pea organic production. From the recommended indicators in economic literature in the current evaluation are calculated following ones: total production (€/da), production costs (€/da), cost price (€/kg), net income (€/da) and rentability (%). In the organic production are used four products: foliar fertilizer Biofа, growth regulator and fungicide Polyversum, bioinsecticides Pyrethrum and NeemAzal which are applied alone and in combination. Comparisons are chemicals (regulator Flordimex, insecticide Nurelle D) that are used in the standard conventional technology. All variants of organic production are cost–effective and enable the realization of good economic results. With the highest economic effect is the application of organic fertilizer Biofa in combination with bioinsecticide Polyversum. In the production of hay, this combination provides profitability of 79.30 %, exceeding the profitability of the standard variant in conventional production (75.00 %); the profitability in grain production (137.05 %) is somewhat lower than that of the conventional variant (140.00 %). Overall, the profitability in different variants of pea organic production for grain and hay is with average values of 109.91 % and 51.67 %, as values for the conventional production are 128.905 and 68.43 %, respectively. Although the result of the economic evaluation is chosen a certain optimal variant of pea organic production, open to future studies remain questions concerning the effectiveness of various organic products in different forms of production organization.

Keyword: economic evaluation, rentability, organic production, pea.

PARENTAGE DETERMINATION OF THE HYBRID BETWEEN Clarias batrachus AND Clarias gariepinus USING CYTOCHROME B

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–53

Samuel O. OLUFEAGBA, Victor Tosin OKOMODA*

 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author E–mail: okomodavictor@yahoo.com, Phone No: +2348033319959

Abstract. Reciprocal hybridization of Clarias batrachus and C. gariepinus was carried out to obtain hybrid progenies for the purpose of culture. The viable hybrid was obtained only in the cross between ♂ C. gariepinus × ♀ C. batrachus, while hybrids between ♀ C. gariepinus × ♂ C. batrachus all died few hours after hatching. The viable hybrid was cultured for five months and parentage confirmation attempted by DNA extraction and PCR amplification of the cytochrome b using markers designed from the known sequence of C. batrachus. The only gel electrophoresis band observed in the hybrid was at the same level with that shown in C. batrachus (1000 bp), hence, confirming parentage status of the hybrid (as cytochrome b is only inherited from maternal parent). Amplification at 300 bp was also visible in the pure C. gariepinus suggesting that primer could have been useful in determining parentage of the ♀ C. gariepinus × ♂ C. batrachus hybrid if they had survived.

Keyword: Hybridization; Cytochrome b; African catfish; Asian catfish.

CYTOCHEMICAL STAINING FOR THE DETECTION OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC BLOOD LEUKEMIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–46

Omid Lakzaie AZAR1*, Nasrollah MORADI KOR2, Mohanna EHSANI1, Saman AIUBI1, Fatemeh Asadi RAHMANI1

 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Lahijan, IRAN

2Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, IRAN

*Corresponding author: omid.lakzaieazar@yahoo.com

Abstract. Objective: Lymphoblastic leukemia based on cell morphology dominant coloring Cytochemical into three main groups: 1L, 2L, 3L classify, Although the clinical value of the expected lifespan in adults is unknown, but in terms of prognosis and clinical course and response to treatment methods in children is important. Methods: 109 peripheral blood samples from patients suspected of Razi Hospital Hematology Center was developed leukemia, and follows Cytochemical staining was performed on each sample. Results: 19 samples by alpha–naphthalen propanoic acetate esterase staining positive 15/78 percent and 84/21 percent were negative. 12 samples analyzed by acid phosphatase staining was found that 25 % of the samples were positive and 75 % negative, also the 25 samples that were analyzed by alkaline phosphatase staining, 100 % of the negative and none of the samples were positive, and 34 samples were examined by staining Periodic acid shifts 97/55 % of the negative samples and only 2/94 percent positive, and from 12 samples by staining was evaluated Naphthile AS–D 16/66 % positive and 83/33 % of the samples were negative. Conclusions: The diagnosis of leukemia, the disease situation and select pin for the treatment of all cases with morphological characteristics of the cells was not possible, therefore, to reach the correct diagnosis Cytochemical tests and immune cell phenotype and cytogenetic studies are needed.

Keyword: Acute and Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia, Cytochemical, Prognosis.

FEEDING VALUE OF BIRD’S–FOOT TREFOIL (LOTUS CORNICULATUS L.) CULTIVAR UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL NORTHERN PART OF BULGARIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–38

Boryana CHURKOVA1*, Tatyana BOZHANSKA2, Yordanka NAYDENOVA3

 1,2Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600, Troyan, BULGARIA

3Institute of Forage Crops, 5800, Pleven, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: bchurkova@abv.bg

Abstract. During the period 2010–2012 in the Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture–Troyan was conducted a study on the Forage (energy and protein) Feeding Value of the Following Bird’s–foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) Cultivars Introduced in Bulgaria: ‘Bright’, ‘Georgia 1’ (USA), ‘Nueltin’ (USA), ‘Witt’, ‘Pardee’ (USA), ‘Roseau’ (USA), ‘Steadfast’, ‘Trevig’ (USA) with origin the USA. The changes of proteins and fibers, analyzed by means of classical chemical analysis such as, Weende and Van Soest analysis, in vitro enzyme digestibility of organic substance of eight bird’s–foot–trefoil cultivars were compared with indicators of the standard cultivar ‘Targovishte 1’. The crude protein content in the studied bird’s–foot–trefoil cultivars varied from 16.66 (‘Witt’) to 20.50 % (‘Pardee’) dry matter. Average for the period ‘Witt’ cultivar was distinguished by the lowest content of crude fiber (5.48 % below the standard) and the highest dry matter digestibility–63.29 % (1.14 % over the standard). The share of neutral detergent fibers in dry matter of bird’s–foot trefoil cultivar of ‘Pardee’ was 7.4 % less in comparison with ‘Targovishte’ cultivar. In cell wall composition of ‘Roseau’ cultivar, hemicellulose prevailed at the highest level, and fiber fractions of ADF and ADL were at the lowest level, which presupposed a high quality and good forage digestibility. According to net energy feeding value, the average values of studied cultivars did not exceed the standard cultivar. ‘Pardee’ cultivar had the highest feeding value: TDP (PBD): 160.0 g kg–1, PDIN: 128.7 and PDIE: 101.5 g kg–1.

Keyword: bird’s–foot trefoil cultivars, chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, energy and protein nutritional value.