ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISATION XYLANASE PRODUCED BY SPOROLACTOBACILLI

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–30

Raed Kadhim JASIM

 The Iraqi Ministry of Education, Educational Directorate of Basra, Alackramen Preparatory school for boys, Basra, Alackramen, IRAQI

*Corresponding author: Mobile: +9647702254154, Email: radkazim@yahoo.com

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of some cultural conditions on the Xylanase enzyme production by Sporolactobacilli isolated from the industrial soil and to investigate their potential to produce xylanase utilizing grass and other materials as a substrate. Xylanase activity was detected using the Dinitrosalicylic acid assay method. It was isolated from the industrial soil, secrets extra cellular xylanases when grown in liquid media supplemented with rice bran, grass, corncob, or sugar baggage as a carbon sources (which were treated with 2N NaOH for removing the cellulose from these substrates). The maximal enzyme production was obtained when rice bran xylan was used as a carbon source. It was shows the high enzyme activity at high temperatures 55ºC and high enzyme activity was found at pH 8. The extra cellular enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 68 KD, as determined by SDS–PAGE. The purified enzyme was confirmed by Zymogram analysis. The Sporolactobacilli show high enzyme activity of 4.7 U/mL. The newly isolated bacterial species in this experiment are having alkalophilic and thermophilic enzymatic properties, which is advantageous to maintain the conditions during industrial processing.

Keyword: Sporolactobacilli, industrial soil, xylanase.

INFLUENCE OF SOME HERBICIDES ON WEED INFESTATION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF BIRD’S–FOOT TREFOIL

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–24

Boryana CHURKOVA1, Tatyana BOZHANSKA2

 1, 2Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600 Troyan, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author e–mail: bchurkova@abv.bg

Abstract. In the experimental field of RIMSA–Troyan was studied the herbicidal effect of Aramo 45 (45 g/L Tepraloxydim) at doses of 1 and 2 L/ha, and Dual Gold 960 EC (960g/L s–metolachlor)–2 and 3 L/ha, during the period of 2013–2015 on light grey pseudopodzolic soil, over the weed infestation level and productivity of bird’s–foot–trefoil. It was found that both herbicides in both doses showed good selectivity in relation to bird’s–foot trefoil. Most pronounced was the effect by the applied herbicides regarding the degree of weed infestation in the year of sowing, as the treatment by Aramo 45 at a dose of 2 L/ha and Dual Gold 960 EC at a dose of 2 L/ha provided a degree of weed infestation of 6.68 and 16.11 %. The vegetation treatment of a grassland of bird’s–foot–trefoil by Aramo 45 herbicide at a dose of 1 and 2 L/ha led to an increase in dry matter yield with 21.85 and 18.21 %, and with Dual Gold 960 EC EK it was 24.28 and 30.29 %. Dual Gold 960 EC showed a greater effect from both tested herbicides over the dry matter yield, applied at a dose of 3 l/ha at a phase of 2–4 leaf stage of bird’s–foot trefoil. That herbicide could be recommended for the application in the practice in creating weed–free crops of bird’s–foot–trefoil for forage production.

Keyword: bird’s–foot–trefoil, herbicides, selectivity, degree of weed infestation, dry matter yield

INVESTIGATIONS ON MICROBIAL FERMENTATION OF HEMICELLULOSE HYDROLYSATE FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–13

BHATTACHARYA1, A.K. SADHUKHAN1, A. GANGULY2, P.K. CHATTERJEE 2*

 1Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, 713209, Durgapur, INDIA

2Thermal Engineering Division, CSIR Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, 713209, Durgapur, INDIA

*Corresponding author, Tel No 91–343–6510236, Fax No 91–343–2547375, E–mail: pradipcmeri@gmail.com

Abstract. A crude trial on microbial fermentation of dilute acid treated hemicellulose hydrolysate of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) biomass was performed in batch culture in a BOD rotary shaker using four different species as Candida shehatae, Pichia stipitis, Candida tropicalis and Debaromyces hansenii under various parameters to check the optimal xylitol production. The hydrolysate was concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 70°C and detoxified using activated charcoal (5 %) which efficiently removed 83 % of inhibitory phenolic biproducts. Effect of nutrients concentration, pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5), temperature (20, 30, 40°C) and agitation speed (150, 200, 250 rpm) on growth of different yeast and xylitol production was studied and compared. The optimal xylitol yield was found to be 0.65 g xylitol/g of xylose from Candida tropicalis at 30°C, pH 5.5 with an agitation of 200 rpm, 2.5 g/L ammonium sulphate as a nutrient and 0.615 xylitol/g of xylose from Pichia stipitis respectively after 72 h of incubation.

Keyword: Microbial fermentation, water hyacinth biomass, xylitol production, yeast, detoxification.

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FORAGE OF VETCH CULTIVARS (Vicia sativa L., Vicia villosa ROTH.)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–5

 

Natalia GEORGIEVA, Ivelina NIKOLOVA, Yordanka NAYDENOVA

 Institute of Forage crops, Gen. V. Vazov Street, 89, 5800–Pleven, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: imnatalia@abv.bg

Abstract. The chemical composition, plant cell–wall fiber components content, in vitro enzyme digestibility, potential protein and energy feeding value of forage of seven vetch cultivars were evaluated. Vicia sativa L. (cultivars Liya, Lorina, Vilena, Moldovskaya, Obrazets 666) and Vicia villosa Roth. (cultivars Violeta and Viola) were planted at the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven (Bulgaria) during 2012–2014 period. The origin of Obrazets 666 is Bulgaria and of the rest six cultivars–Moldova. Vicia villosa cultivars revealed a greater content of CP and fiber components, measured as NDF, ADF and ADL (211.4, 451.9, 378.5, 74.0 g kg–1 DM respectively) in comparison with Vicia sativa cultivars (189.5, 409.2, 352.4, 67.9 g kg–1 DM respectively). Quality of the herbage in terms of digestibility was 63.9% IVDMD for Vicia sativa and 52.9 % IVDMD for Vicia villosa. The nutritive value based on arithmetical rank sum of all studied parameters (chemical composition, in vitro enzyme digestibility, protein and energy feeding value) showed better forage quality of V. sativa compared to V. villosa. With the highest nutritive value was distinguished cultivars Liya, Vilena and Moldovskaya, which could be used as germplasm in future breeding programmes for quality improvement.

Keyword: fiber, digestibility, vetch, feeding value.

IMPROVEMENT OF ARTEMISININ PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENT BIOTIC ELICITORS IN Artemisia annua BY ELICITATION–INFILTRATION METHOD

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–82

Sona Ayadi HASSAN1*, Tayebeh SOLEIMANI2

1Department of biotechnology, Faculty of advanced sciences and technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IRAN

2Department of biology, Faculty of biological sciences, University of Nourdanesh institute of higher education, Meymeh, IRAN

*Corresponding author: sonaayadi@rocketmail.com

Abstract. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone; is one of the most well–known secondary metabolites with multi–functional therapeutic effects which is isolated from Artemisia annua. Due to low levels of artemisinin in this plant, efforts are being made to optimize its production by various strategies such as elicitation–infiltration. This is a procedure in which, elicitors are injected to the plants by fine–needles directly. In this study, we identified the effect of bacterial and fungal elicitors on artemisinin level and biomass accumulation in A. annua. Artemisinin content was measured by high performance thin layer chromatography. The maximum level of artemisinin was accomplished by injection of 0.4 mg total sugar/ml F. oxysporum and B. cereus decreased artemisinin content in comparison to the controls. 1 McFarland S. aureus was the most successful elicitor, increasing the fresh weight 1.34 fold over the controls.

Keyword: artemisinin, elicitor, elicitation–infiltration, secondary metabolite.

ENTOMOLOGICAL MONITORING IN ECOLOGICAL CROP ROTATION

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–77

Evgeniya D. ZHEKOVA

Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflik”, 7007–Roussestr. “Prof. Ivan Ivanov” №1, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: e–mail: e.d.zhekova@abv.bg

Abstract. During the period 2011–2013 a monitoring of entomofauna was performed in environmentally justified crop rotation including alternation of legumes (field beans, forage peas) with cereals (wheat, malting barley). Conventional entomological methods were used for identification of species and population density of harmful insects and their entomophaga. The results were processed according to the crops. In no one of the four crops, pests in density over Economic Injury Level were detected. Diversity of entomophaga was explained via the favorable ecological environmental conditions and namely by the presence of the trophic factor and the absence of chemical treatments with insecticides.

Keyword: entomofauna, monitoring, ecological crop rotation.

 

GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF ALL MALE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED COMMERCIAL AND ON–FARM COMPOUNDED DIET

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–70

Samuel O. OLUFEAGBA, Victor T. OKOMODA*, Wilfred OKACHE

1Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author E–mail: okomodavictor@yahoo.com, Phone No: +2348033319959

Abstract. This study was designed to investigate the suitability of on–farm compounded feed as an alternative to commercial expensive feed for the production of all male tilapia in outdoor system. Using Pearson’s square method, locally available conventional feedstuffs (Soybeans, fishmeal and maize meal) were used to formulate equivalent crude protein (45 %) diet to the popularly used commercial aquafeed (Coppens). Fingerlings of All Male Tilapia were fed for eight weeks and assessed for growth. The result obtained reveals significantly higher performance with commercial diet compared to the compounded on–farm feed. Studies on alternating feeding system using on–farm and commercial diet are proposeded to reduce the cost of Tilapia production in undeveloped nations of the world.

Keyword: Nile Tilapia, aquafeed, commercial diet, growth performance.

EVALUATION OF EXON 17 OF INSULIN RECEPTOR (INSR) GENE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH DIABETES TYPE 2 IN AN IRANIAN POPULATION

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–61

Abolhasan REZAEI¹*, Sheyda AKHSHABI¹, Fariba SADEGHI2

 1Department of Genetics–School of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, IRAN

2Department of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, IRAN

 Corresponding Author: Abolhasan Rezaei, e– mail: a.rezaei@tonekaboniau.ac.ir

 Abstract. Mutations in insulin receptor gene cause the inherited insulin resistant syndrome, especially diabetic diseases. Here were optimized the conditions for sequencing of a partial fragment of INSR gene, exon 17. We sequenced fourteen fragments from a diabetic sample and a control group chosen from an Iranian population. In this study we analyzed eleven sequences of diabetic’s patients by DNAMAN program (DEMO 8.0), deposited in Genbank with accession numbers LC055416, LC055417, LC055419, LC055421, LC055423, LC055424, LC055425, LC055426, LC055496, LC055497, and LC055498. From our control group, three sequences were deposited in Genbank with accession numbers of LC055418, LC055420, and LC055422. Results showed that there were variation between the sequences of exon 17 of INSR gene in diabetics and control group. Variations were observed in fragments at the beginning and the end of exon 17 among diabetics population. Moreover we found subjected SNPs between diabetic’s patients that haven’t been reported by other researchers. In this study we concluded that mutations in exon 17 of INSR gene contributed in diabetic diseases.

Keyword: Insulin receptor gene, Exon 17, Diabetes, Sequencing, Control group

CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES FOR APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE MARKETING IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE CONSUMPTION OF ORGANIC DAIRY PRODUCTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–49

Katerina BOJKOVSKA1*, Monika ANGELOSKA–DICHOVSKA2, Tatjana PETKOVSKA MIRCHEVSKA3, Nikolce JANKULOVSKI4, Tatjana PETKOVSKA5, Elena JOSHEVSKA6

1,4,6University St. Kliment Ohridski–Bitola, Faculty of biotechnical sciences, Partizanska bb, 700 Bitola, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

2University St. Kliment Ohridski–Bitola, Faculty of Economics, Marksova 133, 7500, Prilep, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

3,5University St. Cyril and Methodius – Skopje, Institute of Economics, Prolet 1, 1000, Skopje, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

*Corresponding author e–mail: katerina.bojkovska@uklo.edu.mk

Abstract. The main goal of this paper is to identify challenges and perspectives for application of sustainable marketing in order to increase demand and consumption of organic dairy products, i.e. to gain insight in consumers’ preferences, motives, attitudes and interests to buy organically produced dairy products in the Republic of Macedonia. This research draws on a survey of 209 respondents within the Republic of Macedonia. The descriptive analysis (Cross tabulation), the nonparametric test of significance Chi–square (χ2) and the correlation indicator Phi coefficient were all applied in examining the working hypothesis. The results of these study present organic buyers tend to be older, with higher education and with higher family income than those who do not buy them. However, the main barrier to increase the market share of organic dairy products is consumer information and availability of organic dairy products in the Republic of Macedonia.

Keyword: organic dairy products, consumption, sustainable marketing.

STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF RUPESTRIS DU LOT ROOTSTOCK ON SOME TECHNOLOGICAL TRAITS OF MUSCAT RUSENSKI AND SUPER RAN BOLGAR TABLE GRAPE CULTIVARS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(13)–41

Galina DYAKOVA1*, Krasimira UZUNOVA2, Ralitsa MINCHEVA1

 1Institute of Agriculture and seed science „Obraztsov chiflik”, 7007 Rousse, 1, Prof. Ivan Ivanov Str., BULGARIA

2 Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, 12, Mendellev bulv. Department Genetics and plant breeding, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: e–mail: djakovarousse@abv.bg

Abstract. The choice of rootstock is important not only for the power that it induces on the grafted variety of grapes, but also with respect to its effects on mineral nutrition, content of sugars, total acids and other technological traits. Two table vine varieties–Misket Rusenski and Super ran Bolgar were the objective of the study, grafted on two different SO4 rootstocks (which is widely used in practice and thus accepted control) and Rupestris du Lot (with common name Montikola). A total of 12 technological traits were reported for both varieties during the vegetation. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using Fisher (F) and Student (t) evaluation criteria. The results showed different levels of significance of the individual traits in both varieties using Rupestris du Lot rootstock compared to the control. Via Fisher’s criterion it was found that 58 % of the traits showed significant differences in Montikola rootstock compared to the control, as the comparison was made based on variability of the traits, while when using the Student criterion for statistical evaluation, the percentage was only 33. The highest significance was reported in the influence of the rootstock on the traits: number of seeds in 100 berries and resistance of berry to pick up from the fruit stalk for cv. Misket Rusenski, determined via both criteria. Comparing the samples tested regarding variability, significant differences were reported of Rupestris du Lot rootstock for the traits: % of berries in grapes and % of mesocarp in berry mass for the same variety. Rupestris du Lot rootstock has significant influence on content of sugars, total acids and mass of 100 seeds in cv. Super ran Bolgar (by the criterion of Fisher) and traits: % of mesocarp of berry mass and % of skin of berry mass (found by the criterion of Student). These traits influence significantly on tasting qualities of grapes and technological qualities of wine. As a result of the analysis of both vines (Misket Rusenski and Super ran Bolgar) a high degree of variability of the values of some technological traits was determined, and it is recommended both criteria to be used for better statistical evaluation.

Keyword: Rupestris du Lot rootstock, statistical evaluation, table vine varieties Misket Rusenski and Super ran Bolgar (Vitis vinifera L.), technological traits