THE FRESHWATER MUSSELS ARE A GOOD BIOINDICATOR FOR MONITORING THE WATER POLLUTION BY HEAVY METAL (THE SAINT–VICTOR–SUR–LOIRE LAKE, FRANCE)

Essaid BILAL1, Issam GUENOLÉ–BILAL4, Moussa BOUNAHKLA3, Luisa Elena IATAN1,4, Fernando MACHADO de MELLO5, Marc DOUMAS1, Mounia TAHRI3, Frédéric GALLICE1, Didier GRAILLOT1, Herve PIEGAY6, Najla LASSOUED7

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(10)–5

 1Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, GSE, CNRS UMR 5600, F42023 Saint Etienne FRANCE; bilalessaid@gmail.com, 2Département de physiologie, Université de Lausanne–CHUV, Lausanne, SUISSE, 3Nuclear Centre of Energies, Sciences and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN), B.P. 1382, R.P. 10001, Rabat, MOROCCO. 4Institute Geodynamic “Sabba S. Stefanescu” of Romanian Academy, Bucharest, ROMANIA. 5Institutos de Geociencias, Universidade de São Paulo–USP–Posdoc Research, BRASÍLIA, 6UMR 5600 EVS / Site ENS de Lyon 69342 Lyon, FRANCE. 7Faculty of Science of Tunis, Department Plant biology, on 1002 Tunis, TUNISIA

 Abstract. The study has focused freshwater mussels to determine the risk of water pollution. We have shown that freshwater mussels are a good bioindicator for monitoring over time this type of water pollution due to their ability to filter water from the river. The entire food chain (freshwater mussels, mollusc, shrimp, fish, birds and humans) is affected by the pollution. The Saint Etienne (France) has a large industrial and mining history. The end of these activities has given way to industrial wasteland and mine dumps. Leaching by rain industrial and mining waste may generate a very large urban pollution. Rivers (Ondaine and Loire) and lakes (Saint–Victor–sur–Loire) downstream of this zone are highly polluted by heavy metals.

Key words: Heavy metals, freshwater mussels; Bioaccumulation; Bioindicator.

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