DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(11)–69

Md. Mozammel HOSSAIN*, Iffat JAHAN

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka–1342, BANGLADESH;,

Abstract. Azospirillum has potential use as biofertilizer in agriculture. A review of Azospirillum as biofertilizer and Bangladesh perspective has been discussed. Habitat and distribution of Azospirillum have been reviewed. The species of Azospirillum, their isolation, cultivation and preservation have been reviewed. General characteristics and identification of Azospirillum have also been discussed. In this paper, all the possible mode of action of Azospirillum as biofertilizer has also critically reviewed and the crops affected has also been discussed. Studies on Azospirillum carried out in Bangladesh still now, as biofrtilizer also reviewed. Commercial use of Azospirillum has also been discussed in this paper.

Keyword: Azospirillum, Biofertilizer, Bangladesh, Isolation, Mode of action


DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(11)–61

Sanjida JAHAN, Sayeeda Fahmee CHOWDHURY, Shahida Akter MITU, Mohammad SHAHRIAR, Mohiuddin Ahmed BHUIYAN*

Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, Department of Pharmacy. House No. 73, Road No. 5A, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, BANGLADESH

Abstract. The cell wall structure of gram–negative bacteria is more complex than that of gram–positive bacteria because of the presence of two layers external to the cytoplasmic membrane. Purpose of this study is to compare the four different methods for genomic DNA extraction from three gram negative strains–Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Salmonella typhi. The genomic DNA was extracted from gram–negative bacteria cultures using enzymatic lysis with Proteinase–K, chemical lysis with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), physical lysis with Triton X–100 and Beads beating methods. The yield and quality of DNA were compared by spectrophotometry and agarose gel electrophoresis. The genomic DNA purity ratio was found within 1.1–1.9 for all four methods. This study revealed that the chemical lysis with CTAB was the most efficient method for extracting genomic DNA from gram negative strains. In terms of chemical lysis with CTAB for Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella species the highest purity ratio were 1.9 and 1.8 respectively. However Escherichia coli also showed the highest purity ratio (1.7) for CTAB extraction. Enzymatic lysis with Proteinase–K was also very effective and purity ratio for Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella species were 1.8 and 1.7 respectively.

Keyword: Bead beating, CTAB, Genomic DNA, gram negative organism, Proteinase–K, Triton X–100


DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(11)–54

Valentin KOSEV1*, Anna ILIEVA1

1Institute of Forage Crops–Pleven
Gen. Vladimir Vazov 89 Street, 5800 Pleven, BULGARIA
*Corresponding author e–mail

Abstract. In 2010–2011 г. the Second Experimental Field of the Institute of Forage Crops–Pleven, was carried out field trial with seven (Mir, Pleven 10, Fenn, Austrian winter pea, E.F.B.33, Uzbetskij 71 and Chlumecka fialova) winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties from the pea collection. Variety Mir 4 was used as a standard. A biochemical assessment of the aboveground biomass of the varieties was made by the following characteristics: content of crude protein, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus and water soluble sugars. The results of the study showed that, with the highest green mass yield and crude protein in phenological stage–full pod formation stage are varieties Pleven 10, E.F.B.33 and Chlumecka fialova and grain yield and crude protein Fenn and Austrian winter pea. At both phenological stages of the development of the plants Chlumecka fialova was characterized with high content of crude protein and low of crude fiber. The highest content of the water soluble sugars in aboveground biomass was established in variety Uzbetskij 71. At phenological stage the full pod formation were established correlational relationships–positive between crude protein and phosphorus (r = 0.653) and negative between crude protein and crude fiber (r = –0.589), phosphorus and crude fiber (r = –0.585).

Keyword: aboveground biomass, biochemical assessment, winter forage pea

TISSUE CULTURE OF Simmondsia chinensis (Link) SCHNEIDER

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(11)–45

Ahmed M. EED*, Adam H. BURGOYNE

Department of Plant Production. College of Agriculture and Veterinary. Ibb University. YEMEN.
(e–mail:, M: 00967–772876682)
Jojoba Naturals Corporation, Montevideo, URUGUAY.

Abstract. Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) a multipurpose and monogeneric dioecious shrub from arid zones, has emerged as a cash crop all over the globe. Its seed propagation poses severe problems due to its male–biased population: the male: female ratio is five to one. To overcome this phenomenon, asexual propagation using vegetative methods such as tissue culture could be used. Investigations were conducted for propagating jojoba plants aseptically in vitro staring from nodal segment with two full or half leaves and shoot tip explants. The growth media (MS) were a basal medium additional to Gamborg’s vitamins (B5) and then modified MS medium (MMS) supplemented with different plant growth regulators (PGRs). The results indicated that MS–B5 growth medium was better than MMS medium after 40 and 60 days of culture. Shoot tip explants were superior to nodal segments with two full or half leaves at different concentrations and combinations of PGRs. The highest rooting percentage was recorded in MS/2–B5 + 1 mg/L IBA. This procedure produced an efficient protocol for jojoba tissue culture.

Keyword: Explant, GA3, In vitro, Jojoba, PGRs


DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(11)–36


Institute of Forage Crops, 5800–Pleven, Vl. Vazov street, 89, BULGARIA, e–mail:

Abstract. During the 2012–2014 period in the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, a study was conducted on tolerance of 5 spring pea varieties to Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit (Ukrainian varieties) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian variety). It was found that the duration of flowering and pods development stages in spring pea varieties affected the seasonal dynamics of B. pisorum. Modus variety had the shortest duration of flowering and pods development stages and the lowest density of the pea weevil. The tolerance of Modus was related to earliness of the variety. The resistance to bruchids in spring pea may be related to length of pods, affecting oviposition. Modus had the shortest length of pods, the lowest proportion of infected pods and number of laid eggs per pod. Use of different markers for resistance as discrepancy between the phenological development of the host plant and the life cycle of the phytophagous insects, a length of pods etc. in the creation of new pea varieties may be effective methods for defense and control against B. pisorum.

Keyword: pea weevil, pea varieties, tolerance


DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(11)–30

Lateef Oloyede TIAMIYU, Victor Tosin OKOMODA*, Muyiwa Emmanuel OYENIYI, Juliet APEREGH

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, NIGERIA
*Tel: +2348033319959 e–mail:

Abstract. This study aim to study the spawning performance of African catfish induced with ovaprim serially diluted with 9% saline and coconut water at ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 and 1:9 with 1:0 serving as the control, latency period was standardized using recommended time by the manufacturer. For saline water, egg hosed out with ease only for dilution of 1:1 and with harder press striping was possible till 1:7 beyond which stripping was not possible, however using coconut water, eggs hosed out with ease up to 1:4 while harder press made striping possible till the last dilution (1:9). Fertilization decreased significantly (P > 0.05) as the dilution increases with both diluents. Hatching was presumed complete at about 28 hours after fertilization. Result obtained show that hatchability decreased with increasing dilution with saline while there was no statistical change in values obtain with coconut water up to 1:3 however value decreased thereafter, the study shows that hatchery operation for African catfish can use coconut water and saline water as diluents up to 1:4 and 1:1 dilution respectively at normal latency period without significant effect on spawning performance.

Keyword: Coconut water, Saline water, Fertilization, Hatchability, Synthetic hormone


DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(11)–23

Valentin Ivanov KOSEV

Institute of Forage Crops–Pleven, Gen.Vladimir Vazov 89 Street, 5800 Pleven, BULGARIA

Abstract. An analysis was carried out during 2011–2013 on eight field pea genotypes. On the basis of the obtained results, the following conclusions may be drawn and used for further research on the quantitative traits on forage pea and its application in breeding and the development of new varieties: Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for all traits. The results of coefficient of variation analysis showed that the genotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the phenotypic coefficient of variation. For all traits studied were found high heritability, indicated that these traits could be improve through selection procedure. For plant height and seeds per plant, line №115 and №9A were classified as high general adaptability to environment. The cultivars Kerpo and Kristal were classified as high general adaptability for seed weight per plant. For almost all traits line №29 was classified as having specific adaptability to unfavorable environment.

Keyword: breeding; genotypes, Pisum sativum; productivity


DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(11)–13

Alexandre Sylvio Vieira da Costa1, Adolf Heinrich Horn2, Essaid Bilal3, Aguiar Amando de Pinho4, Guilherme Kangussú Donagema5, Regynaldo Arruda Sampaio6

1Federal University of Jequitinhonha e Mucuri Vallays (UFJMV)–Diamantina, Minas Gerais, BRAZIL.
2Institute Geosciences of UFMG–Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BRAZIL
3Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, GSE, CNRS UMR 5600, F42023 Saint Etienne FRANCE; e–mail:
4Institute Geosciences of UFMG–Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BRAZIL,
5UNIVALE–Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, BRAZIL
6Instituto de CiênciasAgrárias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 135, CEP 39404–006, Montes Claros, MG, BRASIL.

Abstract. The present work had as objective the verification of the effects of the incorporation of organic residues originating from ETE of the milk factory products in the soil and the effects in the development of the Brachiaria brizantha plants. The organic material was collected in the discard area of the factory, and been evaporated, triturated and separated in three granule size: powder, medium particles (with 2.0 mm diameter) and grains (medium particles with 6.0 mm diameter) and incorporate in soil by quantity of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t. ha–1 followed by the planting of the forage. During the development of the plants, three cuts were appraised the dry weight and number of tillers. At the end, analysis of the fertility of soil was executing. The used experimental design was representing by randomized blocks with four repetitions. The application of organic material originating from ETE residual of dairies was have shown highly promising results vin the development of the forage plants, mainly when they are used in the powder form or attached and in higher amounts. Also considering some absorption by the plants during the experiment, the level of the nutrients and available minerals in the soil increased, except for the magnesium.

Keyword: Agriculture Industry Residue, Soil Chemistry, Forage Production, Brachiaria brizantha, milk factory waste.


DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VI(11)–5

Abolhasan REZAEI

Department of Genetics–School of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University Tonekabon Branch, P.O. Box 4864161187, Tonekabon, IRAN.
Corresponding Author: Abolhasan Rezaei, e–mail:

Abstract. Cytochrome C oxidase subunit II in Salmo trutta caspius were sequenced and deposited in Genbank, accession number (LC 011387). The full length of CO II gene has 703 bp. In this study full length of CO II gene were compared between S. t. caspius, Salmo trutta, Salmo salar and Salmo trutta fario by NCBI Network system–BLAST program and DNAMAN computer program. Between S. t. caspius and S. trutta were found a high homology in nucleotides when compared by BLAST program and 100 % homology were found about amino acids when compared by DNAMAN program. CO II gene in S. t. caspius also were analysed with S. trutta, S. salar and S. t. fario. A high homology (99 %) was found between them when compared by BLAST program for nucleotides. About amino acids were compared with DNAMAN program, results were showed however between sequences of salmonids have been high homology but the location of mutation was important. Between S. t. caspius, S. salar and S. t. fario codon of methionine (start codon) were replaced. In generally between S. t. caspius and other salmonids that cited above have been low SNPs, hence there were high homology between CO II genes in salmonid species.

Keyword: Salmo trutta caspius, Salmo salar, Salmo trutta, SNPs, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.