Effect of biological products on the population of aphids and chemical components in alfalfa

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–X(19)–51

Ivelina NIKOLOVA1*, Natalia GEORGIEVA1

1Department Tehnology and ecology of forage crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author imnikolova@abv.bg Tel. +359 884684575

Abstract. One of the most serious pests of commercial Fabaceae crops especially alfalfa is the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The pea aphid damages crops directly caused chlorosis and necrosis, leading to significant alfalfa loss worldwide. Hence the need for aphid management and use of insecticides. It was studied the effect of a biological insecticide Agricolle and two biological nano–fertilizers (Nagro and Lytovit) to a control of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) and changes in plastid pigment and total nitrogen contents in alfalfa. On the basis of the sweeping with the entomological net average number of aphids and mortality were calculated on the 1, 5, 7 and 9 days after treatment. It was found that the treatment with biological products Agricolle, Nagro and Litovit used alone and in combinations reduced Acyrthosiphon pisum density in a different range. After application of Agricolle with Nagro combination, followed by Agricolle was found the lowest density and the highest aphid mortality. Biological products increased the total pigment content as the highest impact demonstrated used of Agricolle with Nagro–33.4 % increase, followed by treatment with Nagro–29.6 %. Chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b as well as green pigments to carotenoids ratio determined plants treated with Agricolle + Nagro and Nagro as plants with the best physiological state. Alfalfa fixed the most nitrogen (respectively more with 2.77 and 2.95 kg N/kg dry mass yield in compared to control) in the combined treatment of Aricolle with Nagro and Litovit.

Keyword: Agricolle, nano–fertilizers, Acyrthosiphon pisum, mortality, plastid pigments, nitrogen.

Combined effects of some chemicals on beta–galactosidase activity using a new semiparametric error in variables model

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-42

Seçil YALAZ1, Fatma MATPAN BEKLER2*, Ömer ACER2

1Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakır, TURKEY,

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakır, TURKEY,

*Corresponding author: fmatpan@dicle.edu.tr

Abstract. The combined effects of some chemicals on β–galactosidase activity by Anoxybacillus sp. FMB1 were studied using semiparametric errors in variables methodology when the error has an unknown distribution. An experimental design was chosen to explain six chemicals, dithiothreitol (DTT), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), N–ethylmaleimide (NEM), iodoacetamide (Iod A), b–Mercaptoethanol (β–Mer) and 1,10–phenanthroline (phen) and to investigate the results. This technique constrained the number of real experiments performed while considering conceivable interactions between six chemicals. The optimal combinations of chemical concentration for maximum β–galactosidase activity was determined as 8 mM DTT, 8 mM PMSF, 8 mM NEM, 8 mM Iod A, 2 mM β–Mer and 2 mM phen. We also compared the no measurement error case and errors in variables case. The proposed estimator shown has better performances..

Keyword: β–galactosidase, inhibition, semiparametric EIV Model, unknown distribution

Effect of supplementation different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and some blood biochemical in male Holstein calves

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-35

Ahad Bigdeli KHAJEHDIZAJI 1*, Rasoul PIRMOHAMMADI 2, Akbar TAGHIZADEH3, Ahad Golghasem GHAREHBAGH4, Omid HAMIDI1, Zeinal HEMMATI5

1 Department of Animal Science, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, IRAN

2 Professor of Ruminant Nutrition, Department of Animal science, Agriculture Faculty, Urmia University, Urmia, IRAN

3 Professor of Ruminant Nutrition, Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Tabriz University, Tabriz, IRAN

4 Agriculture Sciences Faculty, Payam e Noor University, Tehran, IRAN

5 Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Urmia University, Urmia, IRAN

*Corresponding author: email: rezaebrahimikhezerabad@gmail.com

Abstract. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on performance in Holstein calves. A total of sixteen 17 month of age male Holstein calves with average of (540 ± 5 Kg) weight were selected and were divided into four groups in order to the experimental complete randomized block design. The calves were fed by control groups with no fat protected and 2, 4 and 6 percentages of fat protected oils until 60 days. Feed intake, Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured. The blood samples were taken to investigate the serum content of plasma protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL. Additionally, the fat and protein digestibility in each groups were measured. Data from this study showed that the highest FI and BW and the better FCR was related to the calves fed by 2 % fat protected supplement but there were no significant effects on calves performance between treatments. Feeding the fat protected supplementations lead to higher protein and fat digestibility none significantly. The higher use of calcium salts of fatty acids supplements lead to higher serum triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and LDL significantly (P≤0.05). There were no significant differences between treatments about glucose, phosphorous and protein content in the calves were feed by different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids supplements. In conclusion we could demonstrated that using of different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids may have beneficial effects on performance and some blood biochemical in the male Holstein Calves.

Keyword: blood biochemical, calcium salts of fatty acids, performance, Holstein calves.

Color, microbiological and sensory properties of low–fat probiotic yogurt supplemented with Spirulina platensis and Ferulago angulata hydroalcoholic extracts during cold storage

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-20

Abdoreza AGHAJANI1, Seyed Ali MORTAZAV2*, Farideh TABTABAI YAZDI2, Masoud SHAFAFI ZENOSIAN1, Mohammad Reza SAEIDI ASL1

1 Department of  Food Science & Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, IRAN

2 Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, IRAN

Corresponding Author: Mortazavi_s.a@yahoo.com, Phone: +989396442969

Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ferulago angulata and Spirulina platensis extract at 0.1 to 1% (v/v) on the color parameters, survivability of starter cultures and Lactobacillus acidophilus and sensory characteristics in low–fat yogurt during 1, 7, 14 and 21 d. The results showed that by increasing the extract concentration, average values of b* and light intensity (L*) was declined and control, showed the highest lightness during storage. Treatments containing F. angulata extract had a higher a* and b* values and color intensity (C*) in compartion with S. platensis extract. The mean values of total color difference (∆E*) at the first week and last two weeks were higher in the treatments containing S. platensis and F. angulata, respectively. The mean L. bulgaricus count more than St. thermophilus and the mean count of starter cultures in the treatments containing S. platensis extract was significantly higher than F. angulata extract. However, the survivability of startercultures and L. acidophilus at the endof the refrigerated storage was more than standardized number of bacteria (107–108cfu/ml) in yogurt. The color, flavor, consistency and overall acceptability scores of treatments containing S. platensis extract were significantly higher than the F. angulata extract. Therefore, these additives could be used successfully without having detrimental effects on bio–yogurt.

Keywords: Ferulago angulata, Lactobacillus acidophilus, probiotic, Spirulina platensis, yogurt.

Proposal integral use of Divi–divi fruits (Caesalpinia coriaria) in the scope: oil well drilling, folder and social development

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-11

Miguel Angel PÉREZ–CISNEROS1*, Richard RENGIFO1, Amilcar ÁLVAREZ Griselda FERRARA DE GINER2

1DVSA Intevep Urb. Santa Rosa, sector El Tambor, Los Teques, Edo. Miranda, Apartado 76343

Caracas, 1020–A, VENEZUELA

2Universidad Central de Venezuela, Departamento de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Caracas, 1050, VENEZUELA

*Corresponding author: perezmak@pdvsa.com, Phone: +584264113140

In this research there appear the potentialities of the fruit and powder of divi–divi as: water–based drilling fluids (WBDF) environmentally friendly deflocculant, leguminous fodder for ruminants and sustainable jobs in farm communities, able to influence the primary forests protection. Tannins extract in the form of divi–divi fruit powder (Caesalpinia coriaria), contains 47.0 wt % of total tannins (hydrolysable tannins plus condensed tannins) of which 30.0 wt % corresponds to hydrolysable tannins. Divi–divi tannins in WBDF showed nine (9) times deflocculant efficiency than heavy metals commercial modified tannins. Moreover, commercial modified tannins do not improve their deflocculant efficiency with increased tannin content. Bromatology and structural analysis of fruits (wet base), they show it as a maintenance fodder: 5.33 % w/w crude protein, 9.68 wt % moisture, 77.03 wt % nitrogen–free extract (NFE) (Weende Method), 11.38 wt % neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 5.52 wt % acid detergent fiber (ADF) (Van Soest method). Social–productive production of 15 divi–divi tannins in artisanal way with help of rural community Boquerón, belonging to the municipality Pedro María Freites of Anzoátegui state, there served as developing socially productive pilot model that as well as beneficial at 245 families, whose raw material is conceived as non–wood forest products (NWFP), improve the sustainable utilization of NWFP in order to contribute to the wise management of the world’s forests and to improve income generation and food security.

Keywords: divi–divi tannins, deflocculant, social–environmental development, tannins bromatology analysis, water–based drilling fluids.

Assessing the level of heavy metals in different geographical areas in Romania

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-5

MalinaPUIA1, Beniamin MIHON1, Bianca IONESCU1,Eugenia BUTUCEL1, Adriana CHICINAS1, Elena FARCAS1, HelgaPUSKAS1, Camelia RADUCU1,Adina Lia LONGODOR1, Aurelia COROIAN1*

1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj–Napoca, Faculty of Animal Science and Biotehnology, Manastur Str. 3–5, 400272, Cluj–Napoca, ROMÂNIA

*Corresponding author: Aurelia Coroian, email: coroian.aurelia@gmail.com

Abstract. The concentration of heavy metals in the meat was analysed in seven geographical areas in Romania. The concentrations of heavy metals in the meat was determined with spectrophotometric method. In the present study, the higher heavy metals concentration was found in Mures, Satu–Mare and Salaj areas, while the lower concentration was observed in Brasov and Bistriţa–Nasaud areas. The geographical areas considered in this study are the most polluted areas of Romania and have the highest heavy metals concentration in meat.

Keyword: Carob pods syrup, fermentation, Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

Adaptability and Stability of White Lupin Cultivars

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(18)–65

Natalia GEORGIEVA1*, Valentin KOSEV2

 1Department of Technology and Ecology of Forage Crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria

2Department of biochemistry, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria

Corresponding author: imnatalia@abv.bg, Phone: +35964805882

Abstract. Need to create cultivars combining high potential productivity and resistance to stressful environmental factors appears a new priority in the plant breeding. The present study aimed to estimate adaptability and stability of eleven white lupin cultivars regarding seed productivity and main yield components. The experiment was conducted during 2014–2016 at the Institute of Forage Crops (Pleven), by using randomized block design. The obtained results showed a significant genotype–environment interaction for all studied traits (with exception of pod length and pod width). The calculated parameters determined environmental stability in regard to the main traits in genotypes as it follows: for the plant height–Amiga and Kijewskij Mutant, for number of pods per plant–Nahrquell and Amiga, for seeds per plant–Ascar and Amiga, for the first pod height–Kijewskij Mutant and BGR 6305, for seed weight per plant–BGR 6305 and Garant, for 1000 seed weight–Shienfield Gard and Garant. Cultivar Hetman was stable, but had low values of the studied traits and exhibited low adaptive ability (bi<1). Based on the conducted study, cultivars BGR 6305, Amiga and Garant could be used as source material in lupin breeding program for development and selection of stable and high–productive lines.

Keyword: adaptability, cultivars, environment, stability, white lupin.

 

Evaluation of Romanian alfalfa varieties under the agro–environmental conditions in northern Bulgaria

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(18)–56

Diana H. MARINOVA, Iliana I. IVANOVA, Evgeniya D. ZHEKOVA

 1Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflic”, 1 “Prof. Ivan Ivanov” str. 7007 Rousse, BULGARIA,

*Corresponding author: diana27hm@abv.bg

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to determine forage productivity, crude protein content, grass stand height and regrowth rate of Romanian alfalfa varieties in the specific agro–environmental conditions in Northern Bulgaria during four growing seasons. Six Romanian alfalfa varieties–Catinca, Magnat, Madalina, Sandra, Roxana and Daniela were included in the experiment. Bulgarian Prista 3 variety was used as a standard. The analysis of results for studied traits showed that with good performance concerning both forage productivity and rapid recovery after cutting Sandra variety was distinguished. Regarding dry matter yield and crude protein content, for four years of study no significant differences were detected among the alfalfa varieties. The yields of Romanian varieties were satisfactory and less below (2.22 %) the average yield produced by Prista 3 local variety. With respect to the crude protein (CP) content, as the most important quality parameter, the studied varieties fall into the medium CP content group, excepting Prista 3 and Roxana varieties falling into the high CP content group. There were found statistically significant differences among the varieties regarding grass stand height and regrowth rate after cutting. The studied Romanian varieties are characterized by high forage productivity and high crude protein content in dry matter. They could be evaluated as the varieties suitable for cultivation in the conditions of the Northern Bulgaria.

Keyword: alfalfa, varieties, crude protein, dry matter yield, grass stand height, regrowth.

Utilization of locally available binders for densification of rice husk for biofuel production

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(18)–47

Mohammed BAKARI1*, Hajara Oyiza YUSUF2

 1Department of Bioresource Engineering, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21.111 Lakeshore Road, Ste–Anne–de–Bellevue, Quebec, CANADA H9X 3V9; MAUTECH, Yola, Adamawa State, NIGERIA

2National Biotechnology Development Agency, P.M.B. 5118 Wuse Zone 3, Abuja, FCT, NIGERIA

Corresponding author: Mohammed.bakari@mail.mcgill.ca and Haj_yusuf@yahoo.ca

Abstract. Sustainability of rice processing depends to a large extent on the utilization of waste by–products generated during the process as biofuel feedstock, biomaterial feedstock or animal feed. Rice husk is an abundant by–product of rice processing that is dumped within the rice processing communities with negative environmental effects. Densification of rice husk into pellets and briquettes using available binders from trees used as firewood, and other agricultural wastes will make it an effective biofuel feedstock that will increase sustainability of rice production. In this study, three locally available binders (Afzelia africana aril, de–oiled A. africana aril, and groundnut shell) were chemically and physically characterize; and their effectiveness as binders for production of densified rice husk briquettes for biofuel production were studied. The study showed that binder chemical properties affect the permeability and density of the densified rice husk briquettes.

Keyword: rice husk, sustainability, biofuel, densification, Afzelia Africana aril, groundnut shell.

Effect of biological products on the population of aphids and chemical components in alfalfa

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(18)–38

Ivelina NIKOLOVA1*, Natalia GEORGIEVA1

 1Department Tehnology and ecology of forage crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

Corresponding author: imnikolova@abv.bg Tel. +359 884684575

Abstract. One of the most serious pests of commercial Fabaceae crops especially alfalfa is the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The pea aphid damages crops directly caused chlorosis and necrosis, leading to significant alfalfa loss worldwide. Hence the need for aphid management and use of insecticides. It was studied the effect of a biological insecticide Agricolle and two biological nano–fertilizers (Nagro and Lytovit) to a control of pea aphid, A. pisum (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) and changes in plastid pigment and total nitrogen contents in alfalfa. On the basis of the sweeping with the entomological net average number of aphids and mortality were calculated on the 1, 5, 7 and 9 days after treatment. It was found that the treatment with biological products Agricolle, Nagro and Litovit used alone and in combinations reduced A. pisum density in a different range. After application of Agricolle with Nagro combination, followed by Agricolle was found the lowest density and the highest aphid mortality. Biological products increased the total pigment content as the highest impact demonstrated used of Agricolle with Nagro–33.4 % increase, followed by treatment with Nagro–29.6 %. Chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b as well as green pigments to carotenoids ratio determined plants treated with Agricolle + Nagro and Nagro as plants with the best physiological state. Alfalfa fixed the most nitrogen (respectively more with 2.77 and 2.95 kg N/kg dry mass yield in compared to control) in the combined treatment of Aricolle with Nagro and Litovit.

Keyword: Agricolle, nano–fertilizers, Acyrthosiphon pisum mortality, plastid pigments, nitrogen.