Some observations on the genotoxicity of the yellow food dye in Allium cepa meristematic cells

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(20)-46


 1Department of Agricultural and Forestry Technologies, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Craiova, Craiova, ROMANIA

Corresponding author:


Abstract. Processed foods, such as coloured commercial sweets, can be dangerous to the health of consumers, especially for children, because they hide many artificial food dyes. These dyestuffs do not improve absolutely the taste of the food, but give them the most extraordinary shades to attract children. The purpose of this paper was to observe, from cytogenetic point of view, the influence of one of the commonly artificial food colours (AFCs) used for the colouring of commercially sweets, namely Yellow food dye (YFD), using as a testing plant the species Allium cepa (onion). The meristematic roots of A. cepa were exposed for 6 hours at 4 different dye concentrations, namely: 1, 3, 5 and 6%, along with an untreated control. The results obtained showed that, especially at high concentrations, YFD induced both a mitodepresive effect in the A. cepa meristematic cells and a significant genotoxic effect by the occurrence of some chromosomal abnormalities such as multipolar anaphases, stickiness and C–mitosis. The cytogenetic effect was more pronounced with the increase of dye concentration. These results suggest caution in the consumption of commercial coloured sweets, especially by children, who are attracted by the beautiful colours.

Keyword: YFD, A. cepa, mitodepresive, genotoxicity

Variation in cooking quality traits in Phaseolus bean germplasm from Western Anatolia

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(20)-37

Mehmet Zahit YEKEN1, Huseyin CANCI2, Faik KANTAR3, Burak KARACAOREN4, Goksel OZER5, Vahdettin CIFTCI1     

 1Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu/TURKEY

2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya/TURKEY

3Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya/TURKEY

4Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya/TURKEY

5Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu/TURKEY

Corresponding author:


Abstract. Cooking quality is one of the main bean breeding objectives after yield and stress tolerance. Local bean landraces have usually superior cooking quality.  An experiment was carried out in order to investigate i) the variations in the cooking quality traits in pre–breeding collection of 60 Phaseolus sp landraces from Western Anatolia provinces and ii) cooking time in relation with other cooking quality traits. There was a considerable variation in the variables tested within the germplasm of cooking time (26.0–100.0 min), dry weight (19.0–61.8 g), wet weight (37.00–129.15 g), hydration capacity (0.19–0.67 mL), hydration index (0.73–2.12%), dry volume (60.00–100.00 mL), wet volume (135.00–218.00 mL), swelling capacity (0.20–0.85 mL), swelling index (1.69–9.00%), cooking time (26.00–100.00 min), protein content (19.30–30.00%) and seed color. There was fourfold variation in cooking time. Cooking time was significantly correlated with protein content (r=0.732, P<0.01) and had close relationship with main seed color and dry volume.  In UPGMA Cluster dendrogram, cooking time, protein content, swelling index, hydration index and main seed color formed closely related sub group. In conclusion, there was a considerable variation in the cooking quality traits investigated in the core collection of beans. There was four–fold difference within landraces for cooking time, which can be used for breeding bean cultivars with short cooking times. Cooking time in the landraces investigated was associated with protein content, main seed color and swelling index.

Keyword: Heirloom, Common beans, Landraces, Cooking time

Application of the Ecologo-genetic Model in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Breeding

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(20)-29

Valentin Kosev1, Natalia Georgieva2*

 1Department of Breeding and Seed Production of Forage Crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

2Department of Forage Production and Animal Breeding, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

Corresponding author:, Phone: +359887733701


Abstract. The research was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops (Pleven, Bulgaria) during the period 2016–2018. As methods of evaluation of 17 accessions of broad bean, the ecologo–genetic model for organization of the quantitative trait and the method of orthogonal regressions were applied. The estimation of source material of broad bean showed high productivity, expressed through seed weight per plant, in accessions BGE 029055 (40.57g), BGP (40.46g) and FbH 14 (34.85g) classified with ranks 4, 9 and 8, respectively. The traits of number of pods and seeds per plant were well combined in BGE 029055 (15; 3), BGP (12; 3) and Fb 2486 (12; 3), which also had the highest ranks (3–5).The estimation of source material through genetic–physiological systems allowed with a high probability to be selected appropriate parental forms. BGE 029055 had strong genes of the physiological systems (attraction and adaptability) in terms of productivity. BGE 046721, Fb 2486 and BGE 029055 were of interest and may be included in the combinative breeding for the development of adaptive and high–yielding cultivars.

Keyword: broad bean, genotype, phenotype, productivity.

Quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of soft drinks manufactured by clarified date liquid sugars

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(20)-19

Ahmed HARIRI1*, Nawel OUIS2, Djilali BOUHADI1, Zouaoui BENATOUCHE1

1* Bioconversion Laboratory, Microbiology Engineering and Health Safety, University Mustapha Stambouli of Mascara (UN 2901), BP. 763, Sidi Said, Mascara, ALGERIA.

2 Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules and Biological Interfaces, University Mustapha Stambouli of Mascara (UN 2901), BP. 763, Sidi Said, Mascara, Algeria.

Corresponding author*:

Abstract. This study was carried out to determine the effect of replacement of granular sucrose by clarified date liquid sugars during manufacture of soft drinks. In order to obtain pure liquid sugars, date syrup obtained by hot extraction (85 °C for 2h) at 20 % was clarified by Bentonite at concentration of 16.6 g.L–1, temperature of 60 °C for 30 min at pH 4. The sweetened clarified date syrup was concentrated in water bath at 105 °C, sterilized at 120 °C for 10 min and used for replacement of sucrose at 20, 40 and 80 mL. The clarification of date syrup by Bentonite removes the major compounds except the sugars and leads to clear sweetened liquid sugars. Clarified liquid sugars was characterized by lower levels of turbidity 22.0±0.2, viscosity 0.93±0.01 mPas, density 1.001±0.020, optical density 0.40±0.01, pectin 0.70±0.10 %, dry matter 14.76±0.20 %, proteins 0.07±0.10 %, ash 0.19±0.01 % and higher amounts of sugars 84.2±0.2 %. The inclusion of liquid sugar for manufacture of soft drinks as substitute of sucrose found a good physical, biochemical and microbiological qualities and high acceptability for its sensorial characteristics. These results suggest the potential use of date liquid sugars for formulation of new food products.

Keywords: bentonite, clarification, date, liquid sugar, soft drinks, syrup.

In vitro mutagenic effect of cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich) tar in the salmonella/microsome assay system

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(20)-13

Hatice Aysun MERCIMEK TAKCI1*, Filiz Ucan TURKMEN2, Mehmet SARI3

 1Kilis 7 Aralık University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, 79000 Kilis, TURKEY

2Kilis 7 Aralık University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Food Engineering Department, 79000 Kilis, TURKEY;

3Mersin University, Medical Faculty, Basic Medical Sciences, Mersin, TURKEY

Corresponding author:


Abstract. Cedar tar is obtained by pyrolytic breakdown of Cedrus libani A. Rich (Pinaceae) wood. Cedrus libani A. Rich (Pinaceae) grows on the Taurus Mountains in Southern Turkey, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Syria and Lebanon. Objective: The main objective of this study is to investigate the mutagenic and antioxidant effect of Cedar tar produced from cedarwoods collected from Gume village of Mut, Mersin, Turkey. Methods: The mutagenic activity of Cedar tar was screened by using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains, with and without S9 metabolic activation in this study. Three concentrations of (10, 15 and 25 mg/plate) Cedar tar were examined in AMES assays. Results: Cedar tar was found to be non–mutagenic against strains TA98 and TA100 (p˃0.05) in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation. Cedar tar did not show any antioxidant activity based on DDPH radical scavenging. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of tar were 0.85±0.06 mg GAE/g and 0.068±0.02 mg RE/g, respectively. Conclusions: Antimutagenic, cancerogenic and cytotoxic effects of Cedar tar should also be investigated by using different test systems.

Keyword: Ames test, Cedar tar, Folk medicine, Mutagenicity.

Phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Amorphophallus lanceolatus tuber (Araceae)

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(20)-5

Hong-Thien VAN 1#, Ngoc-Buu TRAN1#, Tran-Tien TRINH1, Nhu-Truc Thi VO1, Van-Son LE2, Tan-Viet PHAM1, Gia-Buu TRAN1, Tan-Quoc Pham LE1*

 1Institute of Biotechnology and Food-technology, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, 12 Nguyen Van Bao Street, Go Vap District, Ho Chi Minh City, VIETNAM

2Binh Chau-Phuoc Buu Nature Reserve, Bung Rieng ward, Xuyen Moc District, Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, VIETNAM

*Corresponding author: / #Both authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract. Amorphophalus lanceolatus is a rare member belonged to Araceae family and is recorded as an endemic species of Binh Chau–Phuoc Buu Nature Reserve (Vietnam). The phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of A. lanceolatus have not been studied yet. In this study, we determined the phytochemical composition of ethanol extract of A. lanceolatus tuber using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and evaluated the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract via disk diffusion test. We identified 12 compounds in ethanol extract of A. lanceolatus tuber, such as polyethylene glycol–diglycidyl ether, lycopersin, heptacosane, n–heneicosylcyclopentane, homalomenol F, maltitol, pyrinuron, octadecane, 2 (1 H) naphthalenone, 3,5,6,7,8,8a–hexahydro–4,8a–dimethyl–6–(1–methylethenyl), 2–methylfluoranthene, quinic acid, 1H–imidazole. Moreover, we proved that ethanol extract of A. lanceolatus tuber could inhibit the growth of B. cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus.

Keyword: antibacterial activity, A. lanceolatus, chemical composition, ethanol extract, LC–MS.


Content Issue 19, Jan.–Jun. 2019

Assessment of variation in seed morphological traits in Phaseolus sp. landraces from western Anatolia

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-75

Huseyin CANCI1*, Mehmet Zahit YEKEN2, Faik KANTAR3, Murat BOZKURT3, Vahdettin CIFTCI2, Goksel OZER4

1Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya, TURKEY

2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, TURKEY

3Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya, TURKEY

4Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, TURKEY

Corresponding author: Tel.: +90 242 227 44 00 (25 42)

Abstract. Seed size, seed shape and seed colour are easily discernible phenotypic traits of beans in the market. Consumers often have specific preferences to different combinations of seed size, shape and colour. Local landraces are usually grown for their desired organoleptic and seed properties by consumers. This study investigated the variability in seed size attributes, seed shape, visual seed colour properties and seed luminosity/chromaticity properties of the germplasm of 255 landraces representing major local bean types grown in 20 provinces in Western Anatolia Region of Turkey. Measurements were made on seeds from representative single plants for seed size index, 100 seed weight, seed length, seed width, seed thickness, seed width in cross section, seed shape, seed degree of curvature in kidney types, seed shape in cross section, number of seed colors, main seed color, secondary seed colour, distribution of secondary seed color, seed veining, colour of hilum ring and values of L (Luminosity), chromaticity a*, chromaticity b*, chroma (C) and hue angle. Data were statistically analysed, principle component analysis was carried out, the germplasm was classified by UPGMA dendograms and selections were made on the bases of GGE biplot analysis. Landraces showed a considerable diversity for seed size, seed shape and seed colour trait measured. All seed size variables ranged by 2–10–fold within the germplasm. 100–seed weight ranged ten–fold from very small seeded Meso–American types (18.4 g, e.g. AYD–8, KTH–30, MGL– 1, DNZ–1 and BRD–24) to very large seeded Andean types (182.3 g, e.g. MGL–37, PKS–1, ANT–33, MGL–31 and ANT–16). Seed shape also varied as kidney–shaped (96 landraces), circular to elliptic (73), circular (58), elliptic (27) and rectangular (1) shapes. Main and secondary seed colours had considerable variation within the germplasm with 151 landraces had white, 31 grey, 31 beige, 23 brown, 8 violet, 5 red and 4 black main seed colour whereas 24 landraces had violet followed by 17 black and 14 red secondary seed colour. Landraces exhibited a large variation for chromaticity and luminosity variables. L value ranged between 20.3 and 90.1 representing a 4.5–fold variation. The landraces in the germplasm were assessed and characterised on the bases of diversity in seed morphological traits. Selections were made using UPGMA dendogram and GGE–biplot for production and breeding bean cultivars for preferences of changing consumer demands.

Keyword: Beans, seed size, seed shape, seed colour, luminosity, chromaticity.


Study of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Amaranthus caudatus L.

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-66

Safa LOTFI 1*, Habibeh KORDSARDOUEI2, Hakimeh OLOUMI3

1Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, IRAN

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, IRAN

3Department of Ecology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, IRAN

*Corresponding author:,

Abstract. Nowadays, the replacement of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants of plant origin in the food industry has been widely considered. In addition, the results of scientific researches demonstrate that consumption of plants with high antioxidant capacity reduces the incidence of many diseases such as all types of cancer, cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s diseases and also helps the treatment process of the diseases. In this research, the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces and Amaranthus caudatus L. flowers was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu method and also the antioxidant capacity of two extracts was studied using FRAP and DPPH methods. The results showed that the total phenolic content of A. caudatus and H. sabdariffa ethanol extracts were 3.25 ± 0.34 and 1.73 ± 0.21 mg GAE g–1 extract, respectively. The results of two FRAP and DPPH assays also indicate the significant antioxidant capacity of these two plants extracts. The comparison of EC50 obtained from the DPPH assay of two extracts showed that the antioxidant activity of the A. caudatus extract is higher than that of H. sabdariffa, and therefore there is a direct relationship between the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extracts and their antioxidant activity. Overall, the results of the present study show that these two medicinal plants can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries, which requires more scientific research on them.

Keyword: antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Amaranthus caudatus L., medicinal plant.


Health–beneficial compounds from edible and waste bulb components of sweet onion genotypes organically grown in northern Europe

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-58

Victor NEMTINOV1, Nadezhda GOLUBKINA2*, Andrey KOSHEVAROV2, Yulia KONSTANCHUK1, Anna MOLCHANOVA2, Sergei NADEZHKIN2, Vincenzo Michele SELLITTO3, Gianluca CARUSO4

1Federal State Budget Scientific Institution ‘Research Institute of Agriculture’ 295453, Simferopol, RUSSIA

2 Federal Scientific Center of Vegetable Production, Selectsionnaya str. 14, VNIISSOK, Odintsovo district, Moscow region 143072, RUSSIA

3Msbiotech S.p.A., Larino (Campobasso), ITALY

4 Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici (Naples), ITALY

*Corresponding author:

Abstract.The onion sweet bulb genotypes grown in the Crimean republic (Russia) have a high nutritional value, but have been poorly characterized so far. Research was carried out in order to assess quality, antioxidant and mineral composition features of 9 Crimean genotypes in comparison with the Italian sweet variety ‘Tropea’. ‘Yaltinsky 6А’ showed the highest yield. Beam Promine attained the highest values of bulb dry residue, soluble solids and total sugars, but the lowest monosaccharides content. The Crimean genotypes showed higher levels of ascorbic acid and total acidity than ‘Tropea’, but lower concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn. The Crimean genotypes examined showed interesting yield and quality performances, and also the potentiality to valorizing the bulb peel for extracting health–beneficial compounds such as antioxidants.

Keyword: Allium cepa L.; Crimean and Italian varieties; sugars; pungency; flavonoids; ascorbic acid.