Physical-chemical parameters and the level of heavy metals in cow milk in the Baia Mare area

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–69

Aurelia COROIAN1, Vioara MIRESAN1, Daniel COCAN1, Camelia RADUCU1, Adina Lia LONGODOR1, Alexandra POP1, Gratian FEHER1, Luisa ANDRONIE1, Zamfir MARCHIS1*

 1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Animal Science and Biotehnology, Manastur Str. 3-5, 400272, Cluj-Napoca, ROMANIA

Corresponding author:

Abstract. Heavy metals are important pollutants in the environment and can cause problems for the organisms, and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the food chain can have adverse effects on human health. Regulations on the legally accepted amounts of heavy metals in food and in the body are very precise. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the level of heavy metals in cow milk from different localities in the Baia Mare area, considered a very polluted area. The physical–chemical parameters and heavy metals in milk were determined. The determination of heavy metals in milk was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or ICP–MS used to identify and quantify the Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn elements. The highest concentrations of Pb were observed in samples collected in Firiza locality with an average value of (43.22±0.62) (μg/L) and the lowest concentrations are for the samples analyzed in Săcălăşeni (11.53±0.33) (mg/L) (μg/L). Cd in milk did not show very large variations between localities, so the lowest concentrations were recorded in Săcălăşeni (4.32±0.13) and the highest ones were observed in the locality Firiza (10.93±0.39) (μg/L). The highest concentrations were observed for the Zn in milk, with an interval between (2255.20±7.14) (μg/L) in Săcălăşeni and (3855.80±5.11) (μg/L) for the analyzed samples from Firiza.

Keyword: milk, fat, proteins, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb.

Biological performances of alfalfa treated with mineral oil Akarzin and reduced doses of insecticide

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–62

Natalia Georgieva*, Ivelina Nikolova

 Department ‘Technology and ecology of forage crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

* Corresponding author:

Abstract. An important tendency over the past years in the conventional cultivation of crops is the reduced use of synthetic products. The experiment was carried out in the period 2014–2015 at the Institute of forage crops (Pleven) and aimed to study the biological performances of alfalfa after application of mineral oil Akarzin, either alone and in combination with reduced doses of synthetic insecticide (Eforia 045 ZC). The alone and combined use of Akarzin had no phytotoxic effect on the crop and influenced positively on the relative water content and dry mass productivity (an increase by 5.2 to 8.7 % and by 10.1 to 29.2 %, respectively). The treatment with the synthetic products also had a favorable effect on the phytosanitary status of the crop and restricted the аttack by Pseudopeziza medicaginis. The combined application of Akarzin along with Eforia 045 ZC allowed reducing the applied dose of the insecticide up to 0.03 and 0.01 %, as the same time the achieved effect in regard to the productivity exceeded the one of self–application of Eforia 045 ZC in the highest dose (0.05 %). With a view to reducing the negative impact on environment a reduction of the application dose of the insecticide after combining it with the mineral oil is recommended as an environmentally friendly approach in conditions of conventional cultivation of alfalfa.

Keyword: mineral oil, alfalfa, reduced doses, yield.

Antibacterial effects of aqueous and organic quince leaf extracts on gram–positive and gram–negative bacteria

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–54


1Biology Research Center, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, IRAN

2Department of Biology, Higher Education Institute of Rabe–Rashid, Tabriz, IRAN

3Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, IRAN

Corresponding author:, Tel & Fax: +982433465890

Abstract. Gram–positive and gram–negative bacteria are the most common/prevalent human infectious agents. With increased bacterial resistance to the chemical agents, finding herbal combinations with no side effects seems necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and acetonic Quince leaf extracts on the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumonia. Leaves were collected and dried and aqueous, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts were prepared using percolation method. Antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined using agar–well diffusion test and the average diameter of the inhibition zone was measured. Then, using broth macro–dilution test, bacterial minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined as well. The results showed that ethanolic Quince leaf extract had the greatest effect on gram–negative and gram–positive bacteria. The aqueous extract showed the weakest effect on tested bacteria. Aqueous, ethanolic and acetonic Quince leaf extracts not only had the inhibitory effect on the bacteria, but also had antibacterial properties. According to the results, Quince leaf extracts can be used against the bacterial infections of the study.

Keyword: Antibacterial effect, Quince leaf extract, Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria

Effects of electromagnetic field radiation on biochemical parameters in swiss albino mice

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–48


1Veterinary Department, College of Agriculture, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, IRAN

*Corresponding author: Email:; Phone: +98 911 127 7784

Abstract. This study investigated the effects of electromagnetic field radiated from mobile phones with frequency between 500 to 900 MHz on some biochemical parameters in 60 swiss albino mice which divided in three groups (one control and two tests). Test groups were exposed to electromagnetic wave twice a day for 20 and 40 days. Blood samples were prepared from heart and Total Protein, Albumin, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK), Cholesterol, Creatinine, Glucose, Alanin Amino Transferase (ALT), Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Amylase, Lipase, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), T3 and Tyroxin (T4) were measured and statistically analysied. According to the results, long time electromagnetic field radiation caused a significant decrease in serum creatinine, glucose, total protein, albumine, cholesterol, T4 and body weight. The amount of Serum BUN, CPK, ALP, ALT, AST, TSH and T3 significantly increased. Electromagnetic radiation has influence on biochemical parameters in mice and may effected on healthy.

Keyword: electromagnetic field radiation, biochemical parameters, Swiss albino mice.

Content of Β–glucan in cereals grown by organic and conventional farming

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–39


 1Ss.Cyril and Methodius University, Institute of Animal Science, Blv. Ilinden 92a, 1000 Skopje, R. MACEDONIA

2University St. Klement of Ohrid, Faculty of Technology and Technical Sciences, str. Dimitar Vlahov bb, 1400 Veles, R. MACEDONIA

3University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture, Kosovska Mitrovica,  Kopaonicka bb 38219 Lesak, Kosovo and MetohiaLesakSERBIA

4 Ss.Cyril and Methodius University, Institute of Agriculture, str. Aleksandar Makedonski b.b., 1000 Skopje, R. MACEDONIA

Corresponding author:, phone ++389 2 3065120

Abstract. In this paper, the results obtained from the investigations performed on determination of the content of soluble dietary fibre component β–glucan in different cereals grown by conventional and organic farming method are presented. Because dietary fibre and its components have great importance for human and animal nutrition as well as health benefits, it was a need to investigate the content of β–glucan from cereal domestic origin. Standardized enzymatic–gravimetric method–a mixed–linkage β–glucan assay Megazyme Kit (Megazyme, Ireland) was used for determination of β–glucan content in 27 different cereal samples: barley, oat, rye and wheat, grown at three locations during 2013. The mean values of β–glucan content in cereals conventionally grown ranged from 34.41 ± 1.47–1 db with barley, through 23.5 ± 4.52–1 db and 15.61 ± 0.36–1 db with oat and rye, respectively to 5.60 ± 1.02–1 db with wheat. The mean values of β–glucan content in analyzed cereals which were organically grown ranged from 33.28 ± 2.34–1 db with barley, 21.3 ± 1.87–1 db with oat, 15.81 ± 2.30–1 db with rye and to 6.04 ± 0.58–1 db with wheat. Compared to the other cereals investigated, barley grown by either conventional or organic farming method proved to have the highest content of β–glucan demonstrating its good perspective in cereal processing and technology, food market and human and animal nutrition. The positive/negative correlations allow indirect evaluation of cereals in breeding work aimed at creation of forms with increased/decreased content of β–glucans in grain.

Keyword: barley, dietary fibre, farming type, oat, rye.

Assessment of HIV infection in cells of infected individuals

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–24


Jafar AGHAJANI1, Seyed Bashir MIRTAJANI1, Saba AMIRI KOJURI2, Reihane ZAHEIRE1, Saman AYOUBI*3

1Department of Biothechnology, Lahijan branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, IRAN

2Young Researchers and Elite club, Chalus branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalus, IRAN

3Department of Immunology, School of medicine, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, IRAN

*Corresponding author:

Abstract. HIV is one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in cells of infected individuals and can cause diseases such as: encephalitis, pneumonia and chorioretinitis. The aim of this study is to investigate HIV infection in cells infected persons. This study was performed on 50 blood samples from individuals infected with HIV. Studied patients in the two groups were consumer and nonconsumer of antiretroviral drugs (mention the name of the Antiviral drug). After separation of plasma from the blood samples to detect HIV in cell culture and PCR were examined. Of the 50 patients, 56 % (n = 28) were male and 44 percent (n = 22) were women. DNA antibodies in 16 % (8 cases) were identified in the population, the prevalence of HIV infection in men 21.4 % (6 cases) and in women 1.9% (2 cases). The high prevalence of HIV infection in patients treated with CMV (full form of CMV), the treatment of HIV infection should be considered.

Keyword: HIV infection, cells infection, analyses, characteristics.

Ontological model for the evaluation of the impact of nanoparticles on the human cell morphology

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–18

Steliana RODINO1, Marian BUTU1*, Carmen GAIDAU2Manuela CALIN3, Alina BUTU1

 1National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, Bucharest, Romania,

2Leather and Footwear Research Institute, Bucharest, Romania,

3Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology “Nicolae Simionescu”, Bucharest, Romania,

*Corresponding author, e–mail: marian

Abstract. The development of in silico methods with application in scientific research is in full progress. They have the advantage of being modest consumers of material resources and time and, also, of being easy to be used by researchers from various field of specialization. The research work described in this paper has pursued building an ontological model for the evaluation of the impact of nanoparticle on the human cell. This model can be used to determine the inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of nanomaterials on human cells by complements and refining of the data achieved by well–known laboratory techniques.

 Keyword: ontology, modelling, citotoxicity, nanoparticles.

Proximate and phytochemical changes in hydrothermally processed rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaf meal

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–12

Folajimi Promise SATIMEHIN1*, Lateef Oloyede TIAMIYU1, Robert Gabriel OKAYI1

 1Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, NIGERIA

Corresponding author: e–mail:, Tel: +2347030648212

Abstract. Rubber leaves are a large by-product of rubber plantations which could serve as an important source of unconventional feed of agro by-product origin. However, it contains antinutritional factors which limits it utilization on a large scale as feed for animal nutrition. This study seeks to improve the nutritional value of rubber leaves meal through hydrothermal processing. Fresh leaves of rubber were collected from Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria in Benin City, and divided into five batches; four of these batches were subjected to varying periods of hydrothermal processing namely, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, while one batch was kept as control without processing. Result reveals significant reduction in phytic acid, Hydrocyanic acid and Tannin as the processing time progressed. However, crude protein increased till the 10th min and significantly reduced thereafter and contrary to this, fat and ash significantly reduced as the time increased. Nutritional trials with various animals are recommended to evaluate feed utilization as a result of this processing method.

Keyword: Unconventional feed stuff, Hydrogen Cyanide, Crude protein, Antinutritional factor.

Isolation and cloning of flanking regions (ndhB–rps7) of plastidial vector from lettuce

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–5


1Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN

*Corresponding author:, Tel: +98 41 33392031, Fax: +98 41 33356003

Abstract. One of the advantages of chloroplast engineering is the entrance of targeted gene in to a specific region of the chloroplast genome. Due to advantage of this method than nuclear genetic engineering, it is one of the safest ways for the production of recombinant bio-pharmaceuticals, vaccines In this research, cloning of ndhB–rps7 fragment was considered from lettuce chloroplast genome as flanking regions. The designing of specific primers for amplification of these regions was done by Primer 3 and Oligo Analyzer softwares. After total genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification of fragment was done and cloning of this fragment was This work is the first step in the production of biomaterials in plants.

Keyword: Plastid Genome, flanking region, ndhB–rps7, Homologous recombination


DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–123

Nnanke Agbam OJOGU, Paul Aunde ANNUNE, Gabriel Robert OKAYI

 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, NIGERIA

Corresponding author:, Tel: +2348076476065

 Abstract. A Laboratory study was carried out to assess the toxic effects of aqueous extracts of Piptadeniastrium africanum bark on Clarias gariepinus juveniles using the static bioassay with continuous aeration method. Phytochemical analysis of the P. africanum aqueous bark extract revealed the presence of tannins (1.95 %), saponin (2.95 %), flavonoid (5.63 %), Glycosides (1.05 %), Steroid (2.35 %), Terpens, (2.70 %).0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 mg/L concentrations were then applied to Clarias gariepinus juveniles (Mean weight: 18.26± 0.04 g) to determine the acute toxicity. The result obtained revealed the 96 h LC50 values to be 42.21 mg/L with 95 % confidence limit of 30.37–58.67 mg/L. Fish exposed to acute toxicity test exhibited behavioural changes such as discolouration, air gulping, erratic swimming, aggression, excessive mucus secretion, and settling at the bottom motionless just before death. Histological assessment of the gills showed that acute exposure of P. africanum bark led to degeneration of primary and secondary lamellae, lamellae with marginal channel dilation, blanketing of the lamellae, hyperplasia of epithelial cells, epithelial lifting and haemorrhage, oedema, necrosis and malformed secondary lamellae of the African catfish. The liver also showed focal necrosis, bile stagnation, nuclear degeneration, hepatocytes with irregular shaped nucleaus, cytoplasmic vacuolation, vascular congestion, bile pigment disintegration and cytoplasic degeneration Hyperplasia of epithelial cells and fusion of secondary lamellae. The toxic effect of the aqueous extract of the plant on C. gariepinus juveniles was both time and dose dependent.

Keyword: Piptadeniastrium africanum, Clarias gariepinus, toxicity, Histology.