Adaptability and Stability of White Lupin Cultivars

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–72

Natalia GEORGIEVA1*, Valentin KOSEV2

 1Department of Technology and Ecology of Forage Crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria

2Department of biochemistry, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria

Corresponding author: imnatalia@abv.bg, Phone: +35964805882

Abstract. Need to create cultivars combining high potential productivity and resistance to stressful environmental factors appears a new priority in the plant breeding. The present study aimed to estimate adaptability and stability of eleven white lupin cultivars regarding seed productivity and main yield components. The experiment was conducted during 2014–2016 at the Institute of Forage Crops (Pleven), by using randomized block design. The obtained results showed a significant genotype–environment interaction for all studied traits (with exception of pod length and pod width). The calculated parameters determined environmental stability in regard to the main traits in genotypes as it follows: for the plant height–Amiga and Kijewskij Mutant, for number of pods per plant–Nahrquell and Amiga, for seeds per plant–Ascar and Amiga, for the first pod height–Kijewskij Mutant and BGR 6305, for seed weight per plant–BGR 6305 and Garant, for 1000 seed weight–Shienfield Gard and Garant. Cultivar Hetman was stable, but had low values of the studied traits and exhibited low adaptive ability (bi<1). Based on the conducted study, cultivars BGR 6305, Amiga and Garant could be used as source material in lupin breeding program for development and selection of stable and high–productive lines.

Keyword: adaptability, cultivars, environment, stability, white lupin.

72_GEORGIEVA

Dietary inclusion of thyme essential oil alleviative effects of heat stress on growth performance and immune system of broiler chicks

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–60

Ali OLFATI1*, Ali MOJTAHEDIN2

 1Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Biomedicine Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IRAN

2Assistant Professor of Physiology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, IRAN

Corresponding author: A.olfati65@gmail.com; Tel: +989195966273;

Abstract. Heat stress (HS) is known to have adverse effects on growth performance and immune system. Medicinal plants are utilized as growth and immunity promoter. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of thyme essential oil (TEO) on growth performance and immune responses of broiler chicks submitted to HS. Broilers were divided into five groups; 1) the chicks fed with basal diet and reared under thermoneutral condition; 2) the chicks fed with basal diet and submitted to HS condition; 3, 4 and 5) the broilers fed with basal diet containing 100, 150 and 200 mg TEO/kg of diet and exposed to HS. Broiler chicks were evaluated for antibody titre against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) on 35 and 42 days. Birds were also bled (42 d) to evaluate the blood biochemical variables. HS increased feed conversion ratio and mortality and decreased body weight gain and feed intake (P<0.05). Dietary inclusion of TEO at levels of 150 and 200 mg/kg alleviated negative effects of HS on growth performance (P<0.05). HS increased the serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, corticosterone, malondialdehyde and heterophil count (P<0.05) and also reduced antibody titre against SRBC, lymphocyte count and lymphoid organs weight (P<0.05). Dietary inclusion of TEO at levels of 150 and 200 mg/kg alleviated negative effects of HS on blood biochemical variables and immune responses (P<0.05). TEO at levels of 150 and 200 mg can be advised for improving the growth performance and immune responses of broiler chicks in hot regions.

Keyword: broiler chicks, heat stress, humoral immunity, lymphoid organs.

60_OLFATI

Utilization of locally available binders for densification of rice husk for biofuel production

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–51

Mohammed BAKARI1*, Hajara Oyiza YUSUF2

 1Department of Bioresource Engineering, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21.111 Lakeshore Road, Ste–Anne–de–Bellevue, Quebec, CANADA H9X 3V9; MAUTECH, Yola, Adamawa State, NIGERIA

2National Biotechnology Development Agency, P.M.B. 5118 Wuse Zone 3, Abuja, FCT, NIGERIA

Corresponding author: Mohammed.bakari@mail.mcgill.ca and Haj_yusuf@yahoo.ca

Abstract. Sustainability of rice processing depends to a large extent on the utilization of waste by–products generated during the process as biofuel feedstock, biomaterial feedstock or animal feed. Rice husk is an abundant by–product of rice processing that is dumped within the rice processing communities with negative environmental effects. Densification of rice husk into pellets and briquettes using available binders from trees used as firewood, and other agricultural wastes will make it an effective biofuel feedstock that will increase sustainability of rice production. In this study, three locally available binders (Afzelia africana aril, de–oiled A. africana aril, and groundnut shell) were chemically and physically characterize; and their effectiveness as binders for production of densified rice husk briquettes for biofuel production were studied. The study showed that binder chemical properties affect the permeability and density of the densified rice husk briquettes.

Keyword: rice husk, sustainability, biofuel, densification, Afzelia Africana aril, groundnut shell.

51_BAKARI

Effect of biological products on the population of aphids and chemical components in alfalfa

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–43

Ivelina NIKOLOVA1*, Natalia GEORGIEVA1

 1Department Tehnology and ecology of forage crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

Corresponding author: imnikolova@abv.bg Tel. +359 884684575

Abstract. One of the most serious pests of commercial Fabaceae crops especially alfalfa is the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The pea aphid damages crops directly caused chlorosis and necrosis, leading to significant alfalfa loss worldwide. Hence the need for aphid management and use of insecticides. It was studied the effect of a biological insecticide Agricolle and two biological nano–fertilizers (Nagro and Lytovit) to a control of pea aphid, A. pisum (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) and changes in plastid pigment and total nitrogen contents in alfalfa. On the basis of the sweeping with the entomological net average number of aphids and mortality were calculated on the 1, 5, 7 and 9 days after treatment. It was found that the treatment with biological products Agricolle, Nagro and Litovit used alone and in combinations reduced A. pisum density in a different range. After application of Agricolle with Nagro combination, followed by Agricolle was found the lowest density and the highest aphid mortality. Biological products increased the total pigment content as the highest impact demonstrated used of Agricolle with Nagro–33.4 % increase, followed by treatment with Nagro–29.6 %. Chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b as well as green pigments to carotenoids ratio determined plants treated with Agricolle + Nagro and Nagro as plants with the best physiological state. Alfalfa fixed the most nitrogen (respectively more with 2.77 and 2.95 kg N/kg dry mass yield in compared to control) in the combined treatment of Aricolle with Nagro and Litovit.

Keyword: Agricolle, nano–fertilizers, Acyrthosiphon pisum mortality, plastid pigments, nitrogen.

43_NIKOLOVA

Influence of dietary Spirulina Platensis supplementation on growth, carcass characteristics, egg traits, and immunity response of Japanese quails

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–29

Mojtaba ZAGHARI, Hosna HAJATI*

 Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, University of Tehran, Karaj 31587–11167, IRAN

Corresponding author: H.hajati@ut.ac.ir

Abstract. Traditionally microorganism sources and their derivations help to improve the performance and productive system and immunity in birds. Thus, two trials had been conducted to evaluate the effects of Spirulina Platensis (SP) on growth, carcass characteristics, egg traits, immunity response of Japanese quails. In trial 1, a total number of 275 one–day–old Japanese quails were randomly assigned into 5 groups with 5 replicates (pen) with 11 birds/per replicate. Experimental diets contained 5 levels of SP (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 g / kg diet). In trial 2, a total number of 240 Japanese laying quails were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 6 replicates (pen) with 10 female quails/per replicate. Experimental diets included of basal diet (no additive) and diets supplemented with three levels of SP (1, 3 or 5 g/kg diet). Quails were evaluated for antibody titre against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) on 35 days. The results showed that using 5 g SP/kg diet had higher body weight gain and European production efficiency factor during 1–35 d of age (P<0.05). Using different levels of SP decreased shell thickness, albumen height, haugh unit and yolk height in laying quails (P<0.05). But suing SP linearly increased (p<0.05) egg yolk color when compared with control groups. Dietary inclusion of SP at levels of 3 and 5 g/kg diet decreased plasma cholesterol concentration per/g yolk (P<0.05). Different levels of SP caused higher total antibody titer against SRBC (P<0.05). Laying quails fed with 3 or 5 g SP/kg showed higher cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity after 12 or 24 h of phytohemagglutinin injection (P<0.05). In conclusion, SP at levels of high levels can be advised for improving the growth performance and immune responses of Japanese quails.

Keyword: Egg traits; Growth; Immunity; Quails; Spirulina Platensis.

29_ZAGHARI

The purification performances of the lagooning process, case of the Beni Chougrane region in Mascara (Algerian N.W.)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–20

Laidia ZERKAOUI1 *, Mohamed BENSLIMANE1, Abderrahmane HAMIMED2

 1Laboratory of Geomatics, Ecology and Environment (LGEE), Faculty of Sciences of Nature and Life, University Mustapha Stambouli–Mascara, ALGERIA, Phone/Fax: (+213) 45 707 019,

2Biological Systems and Geomatics Research Laboratory (LRSBG), Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, Mustapha Stambouli University of Mascara, ALGERIA

Corresponding author: laidia.zerkaoui@yahoo.com, Phone: (+213)671132713

Abstract. In order to alleviate the water shortage observed in rural areas, Algeria has resorted to the use of treated wastewater from lagooning stations. The approach to the management of domestic wastewater is all the more interesting because it is part of an environmental context for the collection, treatment and recycling of treated water for agricultural purposes. This is lagooning as a purification process. The question is whether it meets environmental and health requirements. The present work aims to monitor and analyze the purification performance of six sewage treatment plants located in the region of Mascara (West Algeria) namely: Ghriss, Bouhannifia, Hacine, Mohammadia, Tizi and Froha, to examine the reliability of this wastewater treatment system in accordance with universal standards. We notice that purification performances are low and variable and remain dependent on the season for nitrates (NO3), ammonium (NH4+) and phosphorus.

Keyword: performance, clean water, lagooning, Beni Chougrane, Algeria.

20_ZERKAOUI

Botanical and morphological composition of artificial grassland of bird’s–foot–trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.) treated with lumbrical and lumbrex

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–12

Tatyana BOZHANSKA1*

 1 Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600–Troyan,

281 Vasil Levski Street, Troyan, BULGARIA

Corresponding author: E–mail: tbozhanska@mail.bg

Abstract. In the period of 2014–2016 at the Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture–Troyan, Lumbrical and Lumbrex bioproducts were tested in a field experiment on a grassland of bird’s–foot–trefoil with ‘Leo’ cultivar. Organic fertilizers are high in humic and fulvo acids, macro and micro elements. They are a result of the processing of organic waste through the red earthworm (Lumbricus rubellis) and the application of modern biotechnology. The results show that the independent introduction of the studied preparations has a positive influence on the density of Lotus corniculatus L. in the grassland. The main crop in the harvested biomass prevails in the soil and leaf feeding variants with 3.9 and 1.2–2.7 percentage units, respectively. The weed vegetation is reduced more significantly mainly in Lumbrical variants, regardless of the fertilization level. The liquid fraction of Lumbrex, introduced in the bud–formation period – beginning of blossoming at a dose of 150 and 200 mL/da, had a slighter influence on the participation of bird’s–foot–trefoil (89.8–91.4 %) in the total biomass as well as the level of weed infestation, while it increased more significantly the amount of leaf mass. The percentage share of variants with foliar treatment exceeded the control with 7.0 (Lumbrex 150 mL/da) to 10.4 (Lumbrex 200 mL/da), and those with soil nutrition with 1.5 (Lumbrical 150 mL/m2) and 4.3 (Lumbrical 200 mL/m2) percentage units.

Keyword: Lotus corniculatus L., Lumbrical, Lumbrex, bio–fertilization.

12_BOZHANSKA

Sequence analysis of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA mitochondrial genes in Iranian Afshari sheep

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–5

Mohammad MAHMOODI1, Kian Pahlevan AFSHARI1*, Hamid Reza SEYEDABADI2, Mehran ABOOZARI1

 1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, IRAN

2Animal Science Research Institute of Iran (ASRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, IRAN

Corresponding author: kianpahlevanafshar1980@gmail.com

Abstract. This study was to determine phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation in Iranian Afshari sheep breed. For this reason, phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation were analyzed by using 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA was isolated by salting out method and amplified 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes using PCR method. PCR amplification of 12S and 16S rRNA generated PCR amplicons at 859 and 1053 bp lengths, respectively. Sequence analysis was performed using Bio–Edit software. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA software. Phylogenetic analysis of haplotype in the combination with the sheep from Gen–Bank showed that Iranian Afshari sheep made a close to the Australian sheep cluster. There was found informative for establishing relationships between breeds from different parts of the world. This may facilitate the future researchers and breeders for better understanding the genetic interactions and breed differentiation for devising future breeding and conservation strategies to preserve the rich animal genetic reservoir of the country.

Keyword: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, Phylogenetic analysis, Iranian Afshari sheep.

5_MAHMOODI

Constructional and Functional Evaluation of Two New Plant Expression Vectors—pBI121gus-6 and pBI1215+1

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-IX(17)-60

Reza MOHAMMADHASSAN1, Kasra ESFAHANI2*, Bahareh KASHEFI3

 1College of Agriculture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, IRAN

2National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, IRAN

3College of Agriculture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, IRAN

Corresponding Author: kasra13@gmail.com, Phone: +982144787451

Abstract. Binary vectors are widely used in Agrobacterium gene transfer in plants. Although new plant expression vectors have been designed, pBI121–based vectors are still more common. The availability of fewer numbers of restriction enzyme sites is the most important drawback in pBI121. In this article, two new vectors–based on pB121, pBI1215+1, and pBI121GUS–6–were introduced. The construction of new vectors was confirmed by PCR and digestion pattern analysis. Furthermore, the reporter gene (gus) was cloned in these vectors. The T–DNA transformation ability of the new vectors and pBI121 (as the control sample) to tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 was evaluated. Transgenic plants were regenerated with BAP and NAA in a selective medium. Thereafter, plant DNA was extracted and successful gene transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis. The GUS assay also confirmed gene expression in transgenic leaves. The results indicate that the vectors are totally efficient in plant transformation.

Keyword: Agrobacterium–mediated transformation, binary vector, Plant expression vector, pBI121, pBI1215+1, pBI121GUS–6

Toxicity and repellency of three Algerian medicinal plants against pests of stored product: Ryzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-IX(17)-50

Kada RIGHI1*, Fatiha ASSIA RIGHI1, Ahlem BOUBKEUR1, Karima BOUNGAB1, Abdelkader Elouissi 1, Ali Cherif DJENDARA2

 1Laboratory of Research on Biologic systems and Geomantic. Department of Agronomy Sciences. Faculty of natural Science. University Stambouli Mustapha Mascara. ALGERIA.

2Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of macromolecules and Biological interfaces. University Stambouli Mustapha Mascara. ALGERIA.

Corresponding author righika@yahoo.fr. Tel. +213 772563022

Abstract. In order to find alternatives to chemical synthetic insecticides in the fight against pest of stored products, we evaluate the insecticidal and repellent activities of three essential oils by contact on the adults of R. dominica. Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation technique for 4 h using a Clevenger from the indigenous medicinal plants then the identification of the constituents was carried out on the basis of gas chromatography coupled with the GCMS spectrometry type Shimadzu TQ8030 coupled with a spectrometer. The different plants are S. molle, M. rotundifolia and S. calamintha. Our results of the contact–toxicity test of oils on substrate showed that the essential oil of M. rotundifolia has a highly significant insecticidal effect with a 100 % mortality at a concentration of 3 μL from the first h of treatment, Similarly the essential oil of S. calamintha has a highly significant biocidal effect with a 100 % mortality at a concentration of 5 μL even the first h of treatment also, the essential oil of S. molle that has an insecticidal effect with a mortality of 100 % at a concentration of 25 μL after 96 h of the treatment. The results of the study of the repulsive effect of the oils tested against the insect showed that the three essential oils possess a remarkable repelling effect just after 2 h of exposure with a PR (The percentage of repulsion) of 50 % for S. molle, 100 % for S. calamintha and M. rotundifolia. The toxicity test of dry powders against the adult beetle showed that the powders exerted their biocidal effect (1.2 g) with a mortality rate of 96, 90 and 75 % respectively for S. calamintha, M. rotundifolia and S. molle after 96 h of treatment. Biotechnological control through the use of essential oils extracted from these plants is tested as a bio insecticide has proved very effective in the protection of cereals against such insects that degrade quality and reduce yield and in addition threaten health of the consumer.

Keyword: Schinus molle, Mentha rotundifolia, Satureja calamintha, Ryzopertha dominica, cereals, toxicity.