Utilization of locally available binders for densification of rice husk for biofuel production

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(18)–47

Mohammed BAKARI1*, Hajara Oyiza YUSUF2

 1Department of Bioresource Engineering, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21.111 Lakeshore Road, Ste–Anne–de–Bellevue, Quebec, CANADA H9X 3V9; MAUTECH, Yola, Adamawa State, NIGERIA

2National Biotechnology Development Agency, P.M.B. 5118 Wuse Zone 3, Abuja, FCT, NIGERIA

Corresponding author: Mohammed.bakari@mail.mcgill.ca and Haj_yusuf@yahoo.ca

Abstract. Sustainability of rice processing depends to a large extent on the utilization of waste by–products generated during the process as biofuel feedstock, biomaterial feedstock or animal feed. Rice husk is an abundant by–product of rice processing that is dumped within the rice processing communities with negative environmental effects. Densification of rice husk into pellets and briquettes using available binders from trees used as firewood, and other agricultural wastes will make it an effective biofuel feedstock that will increase sustainability of rice production. In this study, three locally available binders (Afzelia africana aril, de–oiled A. africana aril, and groundnut shell) were chemically and physically characterize; and their effectiveness as binders for production of densified rice husk briquettes for biofuel production were studied. The study showed that binder chemical properties affect the permeability and density of the densified rice husk briquettes.

Keyword: rice husk, sustainability, biofuel, densification, Afzelia Africana aril, groundnut shell.

Effect of biological products on the population of aphids and chemical components in alfalfa

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(18)–38

Ivelina NIKOLOVA1*, Natalia GEORGIEVA1

 1Department Tehnology and ecology of forage crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

Corresponding author: imnikolova@abv.bg Tel. +359 884684575

Abstract. One of the most serious pests of commercial Fabaceae crops especially alfalfa is the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The pea aphid damages crops directly caused chlorosis and necrosis, leading to significant alfalfa loss worldwide. Hence the need for aphid management and use of insecticides. It was studied the effect of a biological insecticide Agricolle and two biological nano–fertilizers (Nagro and Lytovit) to a control of pea aphid, A. pisum (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) and changes in plastid pigment and total nitrogen contents in alfalfa. On the basis of the sweeping with the entomological net average number of aphids and mortality were calculated on the 1, 5, 7 and 9 days after treatment. It was found that the treatment with biological products Agricolle, Nagro and Litovit used alone and in combinations reduced A. pisum density in a different range. After application of Agricolle with Nagro combination, followed by Agricolle was found the lowest density and the highest aphid mortality. Biological products increased the total pigment content as the highest impact demonstrated used of Agricolle with Nagro–33.4 % increase, followed by treatment with Nagro–29.6 %. Chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b as well as green pigments to carotenoids ratio determined plants treated with Agricolle + Nagro and Nagro as plants with the best physiological state. Alfalfa fixed the most nitrogen (respectively more with 2.77 and 2.95 kg N/kg dry mass yield in compared to control) in the combined treatment of Aricolle with Nagro and Litovit.

Keyword: Agricolle, nano–fertilizers, Acyrthosiphon pisum mortality, plastid pigments, nitrogen.

Effect of different levels of Fenugreek powder supplementation on performance, Influenza, Sheep red blood cell, New Castle diseases anti-body titer and intestinal microbial flora on Cobb 500 broiler chicks

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(19)–29

Yaser RAHIMIAN1*, Sayed Mostafa AKBARI2, Morteza KARAMI3, Mostafa FAGHANI1

1Department of Animal Sciences, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahre-Kord, IRAN

2Department of Animal Sciences, Yasooj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasooj, IRAN

3Department of Animal Sciences, Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center, Shahre-Kord, AREEO, IRAN

Corresponding author: yas.rahimiyan.yr@gmail.com

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using fenugreek powder on performance, some immune parameters and intestinal micro-flora on broiler chicks. A total of 350 one day Cobb 500 broiler chicks were divided and assigned into 7 groups and 5 replicates of 10 birds each. Chicks were fed by basal diet as control, 3 levels (0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 percentage) of fenugreek powder respectively. During the experimental period feed intake (FI), body weight gains (BW) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Also, after 30 days old blood samples were taken from wing vein to evaluate the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) and anti-body against Influenza and New castle disease vaccine (ND). For evaluation carcass traits 4 birds of the same weight in each group were slaughtered, separated and weighed. The result obtained from this study showed that the highest FI related to the fenugreek powder and highest BW was seen in the groups that the fed by 2.8 % powder. Also, there were significant differences between treatments about FCR (p≤0.05). The SRBC, ND and Influenza titer as an immune system was for 2.8 % fenugreek powder respectively. The carcass evaluation mentioned that the highest carcass percentage was for 2.8 % fenugreek powder and there were significant differences between groups about intestine and gizzard percentage. The results showed that different levels of fenugreek powder used in experimental broilers had significant effects on intestinal microbial population. We also concluded that fenugreek powder at the present levels can enhance body performance, some carcass visceral percentage, some immune system parameters titer in Cobb 500 broiler chicks.

Key words: Broiler, Fenugreek, Performance, Immune system, Intestinal microbial population.

The purification performances of the lagooning process, case of the Beni Chougrane region in Mascara (Algerian N.W.)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(18)–20

Laidia ZERKAOUI1 *, Mohamed BENSLIMANE1, Abderrahmane HAMIMED2

 1Laboratory of Geomatics, Ecology and Environment (LGEE), Faculty of Sciences of Nature and Life, University Mustapha Stambouli–Mascara, ALGERIA, Phone/Fax: (+213) 45 707 019,

2Biological Systems and Geomatics Research Laboratory (LRSBG), Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, Mustapha Stambouli University of Mascara, ALGERIA

Corresponding author: laidia.zerkaoui@yahoo.com, Phone: (+213)671132713

Abstract. In order to alleviate the water shortage observed in rural areas, Algeria has resorted to the use of treated wastewater from lagooning stations. The approach to the management of domestic wastewater is all the more interesting because it is part of an environmental context for the collection, treatment and recycling of treated water for agricultural purposes. This is lagooning as a purification process. The question is whether it meets environmental and health requirements. The present work aims to monitor and analyze the purification performance of six sewage treatment plants located in the region of Mascara (West Algeria) namely: Ghriss, Bouhannifia, Hacine, Mohammadia, Tizi and Froha, to examine the reliability of this wastewater treatment system in accordance with universal standards. We notice that purification performances are low and variable and remain dependent on the season for nitrates (NO3), ammonium (NH4+) and phosphorus.

Keyword: performance, clean water, lagooning, Beni Chougrane, Algeria.

Botanical and morphological composition of artificial grassland of bird’s–foot–trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.) treated with lumbrical and lumbrex

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(18)–12

Tatyana BOZHANSKA1*

 1 Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600–Troyan,

281 Vasil Levski Street, Troyan, BULGARIA

Corresponding author: E–mail: tbozhanska@mail.bg

Abstract. In the period of 2014–2016 at the Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture–Troyan, Lumbrical and Lumbrex bioproducts were tested in a field experiment on a grassland of bird’s–foot–trefoil with ‘Leo’ cultivar. Organic fertilizers are high in humic and fulvo acids, macro and micro elements. They are a result of the processing of organic waste through the red earthworm (Lumbricus rubellis) and the application of modern biotechnology. The results show that the independent introduction of the studied preparations has a positive influence on the density of Lotus corniculatus L. in the grassland. The main crop in the harvested biomass prevails in the soil and leaf feeding variants with 3.9 and 1.2–2.7 percentage units, respectively. The weed vegetation is reduced more significantly mainly in Lumbrical variants, regardless of the fertilization level. The liquid fraction of Lumbrex, introduced in the bud–formation period – beginning of blossoming at a dose of 150 and 200 mL/da, had a slighter influence on the participation of bird’s–foot–trefoil (89.8–91.4 %) in the total biomass as well as the level of weed infestation, while it increased more significantly the amount of leaf mass. The percentage share of variants with foliar treatment exceeded the control with 7.0 (Lumbrex 150 mL/da) to 10.4 (Lumbrex 200 mL/da), and those with soil nutrition with 1.5 (Lumbrical 150 mL/m2) and 4.3 (Lumbrical 200 mL/m2) percentage units.

Keyword: Lotus corniculatus L., Lumbrical, Lumbrex, bio–fertilization.

Sequence analysis of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA mitochondrial genes in Iranian Afshari sheep

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–IX(18)–5

Mohammad MAHMOODI1, Kian Pahlevan AFSHARI1*, Hamid Reza SEYEDABADI2, Mehran ABOOZARI1

 1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, IRAN

2Animal Science Research Institute of Iran (ASRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, IRAN

Corresponding author: kianpahlevanafshar1980@gmail.com

Abstract. This study was to determine phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation in Iranian Afshari sheep breed. For this reason, phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation were analyzed by using 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA was isolated by salting out method and amplified 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes using PCR method. PCR amplification of 12S and 16S rRNA generated PCR amplicons at 859 and 1053 bp lengths, respectively. Sequence analysis was performed using Bio–Edit software. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA software. Phylogenetic analysis of haplotype in the combination with the sheep from Gen–Bank showed that Iranian Afshari sheep made a close to the Australian sheep cluster. There was found informative for establishing relationships between breeds from different parts of the world. This may facilitate the future researchers and breeders for better understanding the genetic interactions and breed differentiation for devising future breeding and conservation strategies to preserve the rich animal genetic reservoir of the country.

Keyword: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, Phylogenetic analysis, Iranian Afshari sheep.

Constructional and Functional Evaluation of Two New Plant Expression Vectors—pBI121gus-6 and pBI1215+1

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-IX(17)-60

Reza MOHAMMADHASSAN1, Kasra ESFAHANI2*, Bahareh KASHEFI3

 1College of Agriculture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, IRAN

2National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, IRAN

3College of Agriculture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, IRAN

Corresponding Author: kasra13@gmail.com, Phone: +982144787451

Abstract. Binary vectors are widely used in Agrobacterium gene transfer in plants. Although new plant expression vectors have been designed, pBI121–based vectors are still more common. The availability of fewer numbers of restriction enzyme sites is the most important drawback in pBI121. In this article, two new vectors–based on pB121, pBI1215+1, and pBI121GUS–6–were introduced. The construction of new vectors was confirmed by PCR and digestion pattern analysis. Furthermore, the reporter gene (gus) was cloned in these vectors. The T–DNA transformation ability of the new vectors and pBI121 (as the control sample) to tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 was evaluated. Transgenic plants were regenerated with BAP and NAA in a selective medium. Thereafter, plant DNA was extracted and successful gene transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis. The GUS assay also confirmed gene expression in transgenic leaves. The results indicate that the vectors are totally efficient in plant transformation.

Keyword: Agrobacterium–mediated transformation, binary vector, Plant expression vector, pBI121, pBI1215+1, pBI121GUS–6

Toxicity and repellency of three Algerian medicinal plants against pests of stored product: Ryzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-IX(17)-50

Kada RIGHI1*, Fatiha ASSIA RIGHI1, Ahlem BOUBKEUR1, Karima BOUNGAB1, Abdelkader Elouissi 1, Ali Cherif DJENDARA2

 1Laboratory of Research on Biologic systems and Geomantic. Department of Agronomy Sciences. Faculty of natural Science. University Stambouli Mustapha Mascara. ALGERIA.

2Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of macromolecules and Biological interfaces. University Stambouli Mustapha Mascara. ALGERIA.

Corresponding author righika@yahoo.fr. Tel. +213 772563022

Abstract. In order to find alternatives to chemical synthetic insecticides in the fight against pest of stored products, we evaluate the insecticidal and repellent activities of three essential oils by contact on the adults of R. dominica. Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation technique for 4 h using a Clevenger from the indigenous medicinal plants then the identification of the constituents was carried out on the basis of gas chromatography coupled with the GCMS spectrometry type Shimadzu TQ8030 coupled with a spectrometer. The different plants are S. molle, M. rotundifolia and S. calamintha. Our results of the contact–toxicity test of oils on substrate showed that the essential oil of M. rotundifolia has a highly significant insecticidal effect with a 100 % mortality at a concentration of 3 μL from the first h of treatment, Similarly the essential oil of S. calamintha has a highly significant biocidal effect with a 100 % mortality at a concentration of 5 μL even the first h of treatment also, the essential oil of S. molle that has an insecticidal effect with a mortality of 100 % at a concentration of 25 μL after 96 h of the treatment. The results of the study of the repulsive effect of the oils tested against the insect showed that the three essential oils possess a remarkable repelling effect just after 2 h of exposure with a PR (The percentage of repulsion) of 50 % for S. molle, 100 % for S. calamintha and M. rotundifolia. The toxicity test of dry powders against the adult beetle showed that the powders exerted their biocidal effect (1.2 g) with a mortality rate of 96, 90 and 75 % respectively for S. calamintha, M. rotundifolia and S. molle after 96 h of treatment. Biotechnological control through the use of essential oils extracted from these plants is tested as a bio insecticide has proved very effective in the protection of cereals against such insects that degrade quality and reduce yield and in addition threaten health of the consumer.

Keyword: Schinus molle, Mentha rotundifolia, Satureja calamintha, Ryzopertha dominica, cereals, toxicity.

 

Possibility for weed control by using of an organic product with herbicidal effect

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-IX(17)-40

Natalia Georgieva1*, Ivelina Nikolova1, Yordanka NAYDENOVA2

 1Department of Technology and ecology of forage crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

2Department of biochemistry, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

Corresponding author: e–mail: imnatalia@abv.bg

Abstract. The possibility for weed control in noncropped areas (stubbles) by using an organic product with herbicidal effect (Segador), alone and combined with low dose of synthetic herbicide (Roundup, 360 g/L glyphosate), was investigated. The individual application of Segador at a dose of 18 l/ha suppressed completely the annual grassy weeds and also showed a very good effect against broadleaf weeds and perennial grassy weeds (85–95 % efficacy), therefore could be recommended for organic farming. The combined application of Segador with Roundup at different doses significantly increased the efficacy of the herbicidal mixture. Its application depended on the predominant weed species in the cultivated area. The combination of Segador and Roundup, each one at a dose of 6 l/ha, provided good control of annual weeds and Sorghum halepense, but a certain resistance showed some perennial broadleaf species (Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex crispus and Cynodon dactylon) as the efficacy was in the limits 75–97 %. Increasing the dose of Segador up to 12 L/ha in combination with Roundup 6 L/ha suppressed Rumex crispus and Cynodon dactylon and increased the efficiency in Convolvulus arvensis to 95 %. Full control of annual and perennial weeds, provided the organic product Segador 18 L/ha + herbicide Roundup 6 L/ha, as the effect of the mixture was equalized with that of Roundup at a dose of 12 L/ha. The low dose of application of Roundup in combination with different doses of Segador minimized the use of synthetic herbicide and is recommended for conventional production.

Keyword: bioherbicide, weed control, efficacy, noncropped areas.

 

Characterization of the quality of the steamed yoghurts enriched by dates flesh and date powder variety H’loua

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-IX(17)-31

Ahmed HARIRI1*, Nawel OUIS2, Djilali BOUHADI1, Zouaoui BENATOUCHE1

 1Bioconversion Laboratory, Microbiology Engineering and Health Saftey, University Mustapha Stambouli of Mascara (UN 2901), BP. 763, Sidi Said, 29000, Mascara, ALGERIA.

2Laboratory pf Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules and Biological Interfaces, University Mustapha Stambouli of Mascara (UN 2901), BP. 763, Sidi Said, 29000, Mascara, ALGERIA.

Corresponding author*: haririahmed@yahoo.fr. Tel. 00213661721190

Abstract. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effect of including date flesh and date powder in the steamed yoghurt processing on some quality during four weeks of storage. In order to obtain the powders, date variety of H’loua was washed, cut into small particles, and then dried at 90 °C during 2 h. Seven steamed yoghurts were manufactured: control prepared by 80 g/L sucrose, yoghurts manufactured by replacement of some quantity of sucrose by 10, 20 and 25 g/L of the date powder and yoghurts prepared by replacement of some quantity of sucrose by 60, 70 and equal quantity 80 g/L of date flesh. All samples were analyzed for some physicochemical, biochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics at 1, 7, 15, 21 and 29 days of storage. The total or partial replacement of the sucrose by date flesh and date powder improves the nutritional quality of the yoghurts such as proteins, fat, ash, and dry mater, but the level of the total sugars was decreased. Results of microbiological analyze showed complete absence of the total and fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, faecal streptococci and Salmonella in all yoghurts prepared and throughout the storage period. Replacement of the sucrose by all types of date improves the sensory characteristics of the yoghurts included taste and texture.

Keyword: Date flesh, date powder, H’loua, Quality, Sucrose, Yoghurt.