CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOLS EXTRACTED FROM DIFFERENT HONEYS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–78

Hamza BELKHODJA*, Asmaa BELMIMOUN, Boumediene MEDDAH

 Laboratory of Bioconversion, Microbiology Engineering and Health Safety, Faculty of SNV, University of Mascara, ALGERIA

*Corresponding author: hamzabelkhodja@yahoo.fr

Abstract. The chemical composition of honey varies according to the quality of the harvested nectar. The aim of the study was to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of honey from different regions in Algeria. A qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out on honey polyphenol extract with the characterization of the majors groups and the determination of the amount of total polyphenols. The results indicate that the honey polyphenol extracts have different rates of phenolic compounds (Flavonoids, Tannins and Cardenolides). The polyphenol extracts present a concentration of 0.32, 0.4, 0.76 and 0.39 mg GAE/100 g for the extract of Mascara, Oran, Jijel and Tlemcen respectively. The different types of tested honey present a variable composition on phenolic compounds, which allowed us to determine the different therapeutic properties of honey.

Keyword: Honey, Polyphenols, Flavonoids, Tannins, Cardenolides.

EFFECTS OF MILK PRODUCTION AND SOME BLOOD METABOLITES ON PREGNANCY STABILITY IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–66

Nader FALLAHNEZHAD ANARJAN¹, Gholamali MOGHADDAM², Yahya EBRAHIMNEZHAD¹, Saeid AHARIZAD³

 1Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar Branch, Shabestar, IRAN

2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN

3Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN

Corresponding author: ghmoghaddam@tabrizu.ac.ir, Tel. +98.41.33356004, Fax: +98.4136698260.

Abstract. In this experiment, relationships and correlations among some blood metabolites associated with energy and protein balance and their effects on pregnancy failure were investigated in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Blood and milk samples were collected from fifty-six lactating Holstein dairy cows based on their reproductive status (in 35–45 d post AI) and blood urea, milk urea, glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and betahydroxy butyric acid were measured by enzymatic colorimetric and blood progesterone was measured by ELISA method. Cows at 56 to 63 day post Artificial Insemination, were divided in to two groups of Pregnant (PG; n=25) and Non–pregnant (NPG; n=31) by touché rectal pregnancy diagnosis. In NPG group, there were significant correlations among milk yield and some energy balance related metabolites (betahydroxy butyric acid and glucose) concentrations and correlations among milk yield and protein balance related metabolites (blood urea and milk urea) were significant in both NPG and PG groups. Furthermore, there were significant differences between means of monthly milk yield record, cholesterol, betahydroxy butyric acid and progesterone between two groups. In conclusion, although evidence exists for adverse effects of elevated circulating urea on fertility, pregnant cows were able to adapt to elevated circulating urea over several days. However fluctuating concentrations of metabolites in the early postpartum period may offer potential explanations for latent effects of early postpartum energy balance on subsequent fertility. Furthermore, in pregnant cows, the importance of progesterone and cholesterol as a precursor of ovarian steroidogenesis for pregnancy stability has been observed.

Keyword: biomarker, blood metabolites, energy balance, pregnancy.

 

KINETIC OF BATCH PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID FROM CAROB PODS SYRUP

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–57

Bouhadi DLILALI1*, Hariri AHMED1, Benattouche ZOUAOUI1, Sahnouni FATIMA3, Ould Yerou KARIMA1

1Bioconversion Laboratory, Microbiology Engineering and Health Safety, faculty of Science the Nature and Life, University of Mascara, ALGERIA

2Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, Health and Proteomics, University of Sidi Bel–Abbès, ALGERIA

3Environmental Monitoring Network, faculty of Science, University of Oran, ALGERIA

Corresponding author: bouhadidjilali@yahoo.fr

Abstract. Lactic acid production from renewable resources such as pods of carob alternate to derived products from oil present a growing interest, in particular for the production of biodegradable polylactic acid polymer. The carob pods syrup is a by–product composed of sugars and its use as substrate of low cost in various industries is considered however, few microorganisms consume quickly and effectively sugars to give a single product. Lactic acid bacteria were screened for sugars fermentation and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus showed the highest levels of lactic acid production. The physicochemical analysis of carob pods syrup showed that it presents a suitable quality. The micro–organism implemented is kind Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, cultivated in bathe fermentation. Three culture mediums were tested, the carob syrup enriched with sweet cheese whey (CS+SCW), carob syrup enriched with Tween80 (CS+T80) and carob syrup enriched with sweet cheese whey+Tween80 (CS+SCW+T80), the addition of the growth factors improve the culture, that is why the production of lactate is very important improved 52.76 g/l.

Keyword: carob Ceratonia siliqua L, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, lactic acid.

EVALUATION OF BONE REGENERATION BY OSTRICH EGG WHITE SUBSTITUTE IMPLANTED WITH BONE IN TIBIA BONE DEFECT IN ANIMAL MODEL

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–50

Mehrdad YADEGARI

 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, IRAN

Corresponding author: e–mail: yadegari_mehrdad@yahoo.com; Phone: +989131813028; Fax: +983833361045

Abstract. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vivo to assess the effect of ostrich egg white (OEW)–derived graft substitutes on bone healing and comparative with self–regeneration of control site in dogs. The eight male domestic dogs (3–4 years old, weighing 20–30 kg) were used. Bone formation was assessed by using of OEW as kind of biomaterial that has flexibility and jelly shape with high compatibility. The implant was harvested after 4 and 8 weeks, and the area of new bone formation was quantified by radiology and densitometry studies. The highest bone formation was achieved with the OEW treatment, and it was significantly higher than that achieved with the empty treatment. The quantity of new bone at end of 8 weeks was greater than at 4 weeks in treated group. The researcher also show that Using OEW, the bone regeneration significantly increased within the implanted site in the biomaterial group, in the second month of the experiment, when compared to the control group. Furthermore, bone regeneration was significantly higher in the implant treatment biomaterial site of individual OEW, after implantation times, it’s showed little effect in enhancing bone regeneration 4 weeks post–implantation. Overall, it can be concluded that OEW (safe, cheap, and easily available) is a potent osteoidinductive component that plays critical role during bone regeneration and repairing in animal model.

Keyword: Animal model, Bone regeneration, Implant, Ostrich egg, Tibia bone.

ASSOCIATION OF YIELD ATTRIBUTING TRAITS IN PEA (Pisum sativum L.) GERMPLASM

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–43

Ikram BASHIR1*, Sumera ISHTIAQ1, Sajid FIAZ1,2, Muhammad SAJJAD1

  1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

2State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, CHINA

*Corresponding Authors: Ikram.pbg@gmail.com

 Abstract. The study was carried out during 2014–15 on twelve elite pea genotypes. On the basis of obtained results, the following conclusion was drawn and can be used for further breeding program. The analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits except seed yield per plant. The phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were slightly higher than their corresponding genetic coefficients variation (GCV) due to the influence of environment on character expression. High heritability estimates for all characters except pod weight per plant and seed yield per plant. High heritability for these traits indicated that selection could be more effective for genetic improvement. The path coefficient analysis showed that 100–seed weight, chlorophyll content, pod length and number of seed per pod had maximum direct effect on grain yield per plant.

Keyword: Pisum sativum; genotypes; correlation; yield.

STUDY ON PERENNIAL LEGUME-GRASS MIXTURES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAIN

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–34

Tatyana BOZHANSKA

 Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600-Troyan,

281 Vasil Levski Street, Troyan, BULGARIA

Corresponding author: E-mail: tbozhanska@mail.bg

Abstract. The growth and development of six variants of legume–grass grasslands were observed in order to assess the productivity and quality of forage of some perennial grass mixtures in the conditions of the Central Balkan Mountain. The mixture of bird’s–foot–trefoil–red fescue demonstrated the highest productivity of dry biomass (749.46 kg/da) for the three years of study, followed by grasslands of red clover together with timothy–grass (734.06 kg/da) and tall fescue (712.81 kg/da). In mixed grasslands, white clover showed good compatibility both with Kenthucky bluegrass and perennial rye–grass. Better realization of clover plants with a higher dry matter productivity had the variants of legume grass Poa pratensis L. Forage of white clover–Kentucky bluegrass was the richest in proteins (151.6 g kg–1 DM), with the highest dry matter digestibility (712.6 g kg–1 DM) and with the lowest fiber content (NDF–356.5 g kg–1 DM; ADF–226.4 g kg–1 DM and cellulose–192.4 g kg–1 DM) of the cell walls with exception of lignin. Plants of Dactylis glomerata L. dominated with over 75% in the forage of variant with blue hybrid alfalfacock’s foot. Soil (pHKCL=4.3) and climate conditions of the region are the reason for the weaker growth of alfalfa grassland and the high degree of variability in terms of its realization, compared to legume grasses in the other variants. The plant grassland had the highest fiber content (346.3 g kg–1 DM), the lowest content of protein (114.9 g kg–1 DM), and the lowest dry matter digestibility (630.7 g kg–1 DM) compared to the other mixtures included in the experiment.

Keyword: Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense, Festuca pratensis, Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Phleum pratense, Dactylis glomerata, Grass mixtures, Productivity and quality of forage.

IMPROVEMNET OF HAIRY ROOT INDUCTION IN Artemisia annua BY VARIOUS STRAINS OF Agrobacterium rhizogenes

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–25

Sona AYADI HASSAN1*, Zahra BELBASI2

 1Department of biotechnology, Faculty of advanced sciences and technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IRAN

2Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IRAN

Corresponding author: sonaayadi@rocketmail.com

Abstract. Plants have been considered as a significant source of drugs since ancient times. Secondary metabolites derived from plants have revealed therapeutic properties. Artemisinin and its derivatives are the most famous terpenoids in the Asteraceae family. Nowadays, numerous attempts have been done to improve the production rate of these kinds of terpenoids in biotechnological procedures which most of them are allocated to hairy root cultures using Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4, A7, Ar15834, Ar9534, Ar9402, Ar318 and Ar50). In this study, we tried to investigate the effect different strains of A. rhizogenes on frequency of hairy root induction in A. annua. Explants were prepared from leaves of A. annua. Then they were soaked in A. rhizogenes solution to be infected. They were cultured in MS medium for 14 days. For decreasing plant necrosis, two different concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5 % were added to the medium as anti–oxidant. For hairy root induction approve, PCR method was applied. Hairy roots were obvious in plantlets on ½ MS medium culture. The presence of T–DNA in different transformed lines of hairy roots was investigated by PCR. The results indicated that making 0.5 % ascorbic acid MS Medium will lead to a dramatic decrease (about 80 %) in plantlet’s browning. In addition, the highest and lowest transformation rate of 79 % and 24 % were yielded, infecting the leaf explants of A. annua by A7 and Ar318 strains respectively. To sum it up, it was shown that all mentioned strains are capable to induce hairy root in A. annua by the help of ascorbic acid as an inhibitor for plantlet’s browning. Because of hormone–autotrophic feature and great lateral branches of hairy roots, the induced hairy roots of A. annua can be applied to increase artemisinin production in pharmaceutical industry.

Keyword: Artemisia annua; Agrobacterium rhizogenes; artemisinin; hairy root.

VARIABILITY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF SOME IMPORTANT ALFALFA GERMPLASM TRAITS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–18

Diana H. MARINOVA

 Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflic”, 1 “Prof. Ivan Ivanov” str. 7007 Rousse, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: diana27hm@abv.bg

Abstract. The study was carried out from 2010 to 2013 under specific soil and climatic conditions in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflik”–Rousse. The objective of the study was to establish variability of some important alfalfa traits and relationships between them in alfalfa germplasm. The relatively low variation coefficient for quality traits–leaf/stem ratio (1.22 %) and crude protein content (2.16 %) was established, and the highest coefficient for stem number per unit area and dry matter yield. Dry matter yield was strictly and positively correlated with stems number per m2 and moderately negatively with leaf/stem ratio. A weak negative relationship between dry matter yield and protein content was found. The result of present investigation indicated that number of stems could be a successful criterion in selection for alfalfa yield increase and quality improvement, respectively.

Keyword: alfalfa, crud protein, dry matter yield, leaf/stem ratio, stems number.

 

DEVICES FOR BACTOFUGATION IN THE FUNCTION OF PROVIDING QUALITY LONG–LIFE MILK

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–12

Vangelica JOVANOVSKA1*, Zlatko SOVRESKI2, Mila ARAPCESKA1, Gordana DIMITROVSKA1, Katerina BOJKOVSKA1, Elena JOSHEVSKA1, Katerina JOVANOVSKA1

 1PhD, University St.’’Kliment Ohridski’’, Faculty of biotechnical sciences, Partizanska b.b–7000, Bitola, MACEDONIA

2PhD, University St.’’Kliment Ohridski’’, Faculty of Technical sciences, Makedonska Falanga b.b–7000, Bitola, MACEDONIA

*Corresponding author: e–mail: vangelicaj@yahoo.com

Abstract. The milk is a biological fluid with a very complex composition, yellowish white color and distinctive flavor and aroma. Dairy industry has a number of specific features that distinguish it from other agricultural sectors. The purpose of this labor was to display the influence of bactofugation on the long–life milk quality. Bactofugation process as significant mechanical process for bacterial removing without heating, are very important factors in long–life milk production. The subject of examination was a cow’s milk as: raw milk immediately after receipt in the dairy and bactofugation milk. On all samples were exanimate the microbiological parameters (Coagulase positive staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Aerobic mesophilic bacteria) and chemical parameters (percentage of milk fats, proteins, lactose, non–fat dry matter). The bactofugation, like device for mechanical removing of microorganisms, using a centrifugal force, allows production of quality long–life milk without further thermal treatment on it.

Keyword: raw milk, bactofugator, long–life milk, chemical parameters, microbiological parameters.

DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF A MODEL WATER RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR INCUBATION AND REARING OF Cyprinus carpio

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–5

Korede ALABI*, Shola G. SOLOMON**, Robert G. OKAYI**

*Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos. NIGERIA

**Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author e–mail: talk2fish85@gmail.com Tel: +2348036977644

Abstract. This study was designed to design and construct a model Water Recirculatory System and use same to carryout induced breeding and larvae rearing of Cyprinus carpio using hormonal techniques. A simple 660 litres capacity Water Recirculation System (WRS) technology was developed, built and evaluated for this study. The WRS was designed and constructed in relation to waste production and waste removal kinetics. The system rearing troughs were made of black and white rectangular plastic containers. Efficiency of the design method and the effect of color of rearing unit were tested on growth performance and survival of Cyprinus carpio hatchlings, to assess the technical functionality of the system. The experiment was divided into two phases; artificial propagation of each Fish species using synthetic hormone and rearing the Fry for 14 days; and rearing the 14 days old fry for 42 days. In the first phase of the experiment, hatchability was estimated, while in the second phase, growth performance and nutrient utilization were investigated. Daily water replacement was maintained at 10 % of total volume of water in the WRS throughout the experimental period. Results of breeding/rearing trial gave high survival rate and fast growth rate of hatchlings. Hatchability results indicated that Black troughs had higher hatchability rate of 69.80±0.55 than white troughs 67.45±0.99. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the Treatments in Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), Food Conversion Efficiency (FCE) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER). High % Shooters was recorded in Black troughs than in white troughs for the specie studied. % Survival rate was high (71.33 %) in Black troughs than in white troughs (53.33 %). Based on the results of the water quality parameter analysis, the system was technically able to deliver optimum water quality for Fish growth and survival of Cyprinus carpio incubated and reared within system facility. This study revealed that the designed system can be used to incubate and culture hatchlings of Cyprinus carpio.

Keyword: Water Recirculatory System, Cyprinus carpio.