THE NECESSARY DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION OF PERENNIAL GRASSES IN THE SOUTH OF UKRAINE

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–30

 Natalya TSURKAN (UKRAINE)

Abstract. The article analyzes the development of production of perennial grasses on the farms of the South Ukraine. The reduction of areas under these crops in all regions of southern Steppe was established. Loss of ecologically pure nitrogen in value when the area under perennial grasses was calculated. The future trends were identified and the forecast of the acre age size of the researched cultures and a number of the cattle until 2020 was calculated with help of using statistical analysis.

Key words: perennial grasses, sowing acreage, structure, predictable level, soil fertility, cost ecologically pure nitrogen, competitiveness, profitability

ftxt

 

HETEROSIS AND DEGREES OF DOMINANCE OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN HYBRIDS (PISUM SATIVUM L.)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–23

 Valentin Ivanov KOSEV (BULGARIA)

 Abstract. The experimental study was conducted during 2007–2009 period in second experimental field of Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven. The hybridization scheme including direct and back crosses covered four varieties of forage pea (Pisum sativum L.), spring–Rezonator and Harkovskii etalon from Ukrainian, winter Bulgarian varieties Vesela and Mir. Inheritance of quantitative traits was analysed–plant height, seed number per plant, pod number per plant, seed number per pod and seed weight per plant of parental components (Р1 and Р2) and crosses of first and second hybrid generation (F1 and F2). Heterosis effect in F1–hypothetical and true and degree of dominance in F1 (hp1) and inF2 (hp2), depression, degree (Tn) and frequency of transgressionin F2 and variability (VC %) were determined for each studied trait. Highest real heterosis effect was found in crosses Mir x Rezonator for plant height (60.24 %) and seed number per pod (–0.05 %), Harkovskii etalon x Mir for pod number per plant (58.88 %) and seed weight per plant (51.92 %), Rezonator x Mir for seed number per plant (7.39 %). In F2 with strongest depression are plants from cross Mir x Vesela for number seeds (43.53 %), number pod (47.03 %) and seed weight per plant (46.55 %) and Mir x Rezonator for plant height (28.71 %) and seed number per pod (18.59 %). Cross Harkovskii etalon x Mir is with highestdegree of transgression for traits plant height (24.10 %), pod number per plant (64.49 %) and seed weight per plant (69.62 %). Low variability in F1and F2 was found at plant height (3.06–15.14 %). Highest is variability for seed weight per plant in F1 (19.08–76.45 %).

Key words: degrees of dominance forage pea, heterosis, transgression

ftxt

ENERGY ASSESSMENT OF FORAGE PEA PRODUCTION UNDER INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC AND SYNTHETIC PRODUCTS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–15

 Natalia GEORGIEVA, Ivelina NIKOLOVA, DimitarPAVLOV, Tscenka ZHELYAZKOVA, Yordanka NAYDENOVA  (BULGARIA)

 Abstract. Energy assessment based on a system of parameters (energy value, energy input, energy output, energy efficiency) in spring forage pea production under influence of organic products (bioinsecticides NeemAzal and Pyrethrum, foliar biofertiliser Biofa, growth regulator Polyversum) and synthetic products (insecticide Nurele D Chlorsyrine 550 EC and growth regulator Flordimex) was performed for three years period. The alone and combined treatment with organic and synthetic products was appliedonce (at stage of budding) and twice (at budding and flowering) for total of 24 variants. It was established that alone and combined application of organic products is characterized with lower energy consumption (8432.56 MJ ha–1) compared to cultivation with use of synthetic products (8533.81 MJ ha–1). In regard to amount of energy output trend are reverse–raised values of gross energy, metabolizable energy and net energy under use of synthetic products. Balance between energy input and output determined as most effective combined treatment with organic products Biofa + Pyrethrum that led to increase of coefficient of energy efficiency (for metabolizable energy and net energy) on average by 22.4 % to untreated control followed by combined treatment with synthetic products Flordimex + Nurele D (increase with 21.9%). For conditions of organic production could be recommended and combined use of organic products Polyversum + Pyrethrum and Polyversum + NeemAzal (excess of coefficient for metabolizable energy and net energy to control by 20.6 and 16.5 %). Combined use of products as well as their double application as factors contributed to increase of energy efficiency in spring forage pea production.

 Keywords: energy assessment, energy efficiency, organic products, pea

ftxt

STUDY THE QUALITY PROPERTIES, SENSORY EVALUATION AND VOLATILE COMPONENTS OF OLIVE OIL IN SAUDI ARABIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–V(9)–5

Basuny M., AMANY & Al–Marzouq A., MALIHA  (SAUDI ARABIA)

 Abstract. Saudi extra virgin olive oil is considered to be the best olive oil for its quality indices, minor components, and oxidative stability. The objective of this study was to analyze some quality indices (acid value, peroxide value and UV absorption K232 and K270 nm) of virgin olive oil of three varieties (Picual, Surani and Coratina) form Al–Jouf region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Also, organoleptic tests, minor components (Phenolic content, orthodiphenol, α–tocopherol, bitter index, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content) and oxidative stability measured by Rancimat method at 100ºC±2ºC were determined. Fatty acid composition, phenolic fraction and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectrum (GC–MS) systems. Results showed that significant differences between olive oil samples extracted from (Picual, Surani and Coratina) varieties.

 Key words: Olive oil in Saudi Arabia, minor components, volatile compounds, organoleptic tests.

ftxt