PARENTAGE DETERMINATION OF THE HYBRID BETWEEN Clarias batrachus AND Clarias gariepinus USING CYTOCHROME B

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–53

Samuel O. OLUFEAGBA, Victor Tosin OKOMODA*

 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author E–mail: okomodavictor@yahoo.com, Phone No: +2348033319959

Abstract. Reciprocal hybridization of Clarias batrachus and C. gariepinus was carried out to obtain hybrid progenies for the purpose of culture. The viable hybrid was obtained only in the cross between ♂ C. gariepinus × ♀ C. batrachus, while hybrids between ♀ C. gariepinus × ♂ C. batrachus all died few hours after hatching. The viable hybrid was cultured for five months and parentage confirmation attempted by DNA extraction and PCR amplification of the cytochrome b using markers designed from the known sequence of C. batrachus. The only gel electrophoresis band observed in the hybrid was at the same level with that shown in C. batrachus (1000 bp), hence, confirming parentage status of the hybrid (as cytochrome b is only inherited from maternal parent). Amplification at 300 bp was also visible in the pure C. gariepinus suggesting that primer could have been useful in determining parentage of the ♀ C. gariepinus × ♂ C. batrachus hybrid if they had survived.

Keyword: Hybridization; Cytochrome b; African catfish; Asian catfish.

CYTOCHEMICAL STAINING FOR THE DETECTION OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC BLOOD LEUKEMIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–46

Omid Lakzaie AZAR1*, Nasrollah MORADI KOR2, Mohanna EHSANI1, Saman AIUBI1, Fatemeh Asadi RAHMANI1

 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Lahijan, IRAN

2Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, IRAN

*Corresponding author: omid.lakzaieazar@yahoo.com

Abstract. Objective: Lymphoblastic leukemia based on cell morphology dominant coloring Cytochemical into three main groups: 1L, 2L, 3L classify, Although the clinical value of the expected lifespan in adults is unknown, but in terms of prognosis and clinical course and response to treatment methods in children is important. Methods: 109 peripheral blood samples from patients suspected of Razi Hospital Hematology Center was developed leukemia, and follows Cytochemical staining was performed on each sample. Results: 19 samples by alpha–naphthalen propanoic acetate esterase staining positive 15/78 percent and 84/21 percent were negative. 12 samples analyzed by acid phosphatase staining was found that 25 % of the samples were positive and 75 % negative, also the 25 samples that were analyzed by alkaline phosphatase staining, 100 % of the negative and none of the samples were positive, and 34 samples were examined by staining Periodic acid shifts 97/55 % of the negative samples and only 2/94 percent positive, and from 12 samples by staining was evaluated Naphthile AS–D 16/66 % positive and 83/33 % of the samples were negative. Conclusions: The diagnosis of leukemia, the disease situation and select pin for the treatment of all cases with morphological characteristics of the cells was not possible, therefore, to reach the correct diagnosis Cytochemical tests and immune cell phenotype and cytogenetic studies are needed.

Keyword: Acute and Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia, Cytochemical, Prognosis.

FEEDING VALUE OF BIRD’S–FOOT TREFOIL (LOTUS CORNICULATUS L.) CULTIVAR UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL NORTHERN PART OF BULGARIA

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–38

Boryana CHURKOVA1*, Tatyana BOZHANSKA2, Yordanka NAYDENOVA3

 1,2Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600, Troyan, BULGARIA

3Institute of Forage Crops, 5800, Pleven, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: bchurkova@abv.bg

Abstract. During the period 2010–2012 in the Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture–Troyan was conducted a study on the Forage (energy and protein) Feeding Value of the Following Bird’s–foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) Cultivars Introduced in Bulgaria: ‘Bright’, ‘Georgia 1’ (USA), ‘Nueltin’ (USA), ‘Witt’, ‘Pardee’ (USA), ‘Roseau’ (USA), ‘Steadfast’, ‘Trevig’ (USA) with origin the USA. The changes of proteins and fibers, analyzed by means of classical chemical analysis such as, Weende and Van Soest analysis, in vitro enzyme digestibility of organic substance of eight bird’s–foot–trefoil cultivars were compared with indicators of the standard cultivar ‘Targovishte 1’. The crude protein content in the studied bird’s–foot–trefoil cultivars varied from 16.66 (‘Witt’) to 20.50 % (‘Pardee’) dry matter. Average for the period ‘Witt’ cultivar was distinguished by the lowest content of crude fiber (5.48 % below the standard) and the highest dry matter digestibility–63.29 % (1.14 % over the standard). The share of neutral detergent fibers in dry matter of bird’s–foot trefoil cultivar of ‘Pardee’ was 7.4 % less in comparison with ‘Targovishte’ cultivar. In cell wall composition of ‘Roseau’ cultivar, hemicellulose prevailed at the highest level, and fiber fractions of ADF and ADL were at the lowest level, which presupposed a high quality and good forage digestibility. According to net energy feeding value, the average values of studied cultivars did not exceed the standard cultivar. ‘Pardee’ cultivar had the highest feeding value: TDP (PBD): 160.0 g kg–1, PDIN: 128.7 and PDIE: 101.5 g kg–1.

Keyword: bird’s–foot trefoil cultivars, chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, energy and protein nutritional value.

ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISATION XYLANASE PRODUCED BY SPOROLACTOBACILLI

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–30

Raed Kadhim JASIM

 The Iraqi Ministry of Education, Educational Directorate of Basra, Alackramen Preparatory school for boys, Basra, Alackramen, IRAQI

*Corresponding author: Mobile: +9647702254154, Email: radkazim@yahoo.com

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of some cultural conditions on the Xylanase enzyme production by Sporolactobacilli isolated from the industrial soil and to investigate their potential to produce xylanase utilizing grass and other materials as a substrate. Xylanase activity was detected using the Dinitrosalicylic acid assay method. It was isolated from the industrial soil, secrets extra cellular xylanases when grown in liquid media supplemented with rice bran, grass, corncob, or sugar baggage as a carbon sources (which were treated with 2N NaOH for removing the cellulose from these substrates). The maximal enzyme production was obtained when rice bran xylan was used as a carbon source. It was shows the high enzyme activity at high temperatures 55ºC and high enzyme activity was found at pH 8. The extra cellular enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 68 KD, as determined by SDS–PAGE. The purified enzyme was confirmed by Zymogram analysis. The Sporolactobacilli show high enzyme activity of 4.7 U/mL. The newly isolated bacterial species in this experiment are having alkalophilic and thermophilic enzymatic properties, which is advantageous to maintain the conditions during industrial processing.

Keyword: Sporolactobacilli, industrial soil, xylanase.

INFLUENCE OF SOME HERBICIDES ON WEED INFESTATION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF BIRD’S–FOOT TREFOIL

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–24

Boryana CHURKOVA1, Tatyana BOZHANSKA2

 1, 2Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600 Troyan, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author e–mail: bchurkova@abv.bg

Abstract. In the experimental field of RIMSA–Troyan was studied the herbicidal effect of Aramo 45 (45 g/L Tepraloxydim) at doses of 1 and 2 L/ha, and Dual Gold 960 EC (960g/L s–metolachlor)–2 and 3 L/ha, during the period of 2013–2015 on light grey pseudopodzolic soil, over the weed infestation level and productivity of bird’s–foot–trefoil. It was found that both herbicides in both doses showed good selectivity in relation to bird’s–foot trefoil. Most pronounced was the effect by the applied herbicides regarding the degree of weed infestation in the year of sowing, as the treatment by Aramo 45 at a dose of 2 L/ha and Dual Gold 960 EC at a dose of 2 L/ha provided a degree of weed infestation of 6.68 and 16.11 %. The vegetation treatment of a grassland of bird’s–foot–trefoil by Aramo 45 herbicide at a dose of 1 and 2 L/ha led to an increase in dry matter yield with 21.85 and 18.21 %, and with Dual Gold 960 EC EK it was 24.28 and 30.29 %. Dual Gold 960 EC showed a greater effect from both tested herbicides over the dry matter yield, applied at a dose of 3 l/ha at a phase of 2–4 leaf stage of bird’s–foot trefoil. That herbicide could be recommended for the application in the practice in creating weed–free crops of bird’s–foot–trefoil for forage production.

Keyword: bird’s–foot–trefoil, herbicides, selectivity, degree of weed infestation, dry matter yield

INVESTIGATIONS ON MICROBIAL FERMENTATION OF HEMICELLULOSE HYDROLYSATE FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–13

BHATTACHARYA1, A.K. SADHUKHAN1, A. GANGULY2, P.K. CHATTERJEE 2*

 1Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, 713209, Durgapur, INDIA

2Thermal Engineering Division, CSIR Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, 713209, Durgapur, INDIA

*Corresponding author, Tel No 91–343–6510236, Fax No 91–343–2547375, E–mail: pradipcmeri@gmail.com

Abstract. A crude trial on microbial fermentation of dilute acid treated hemicellulose hydrolysate of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) biomass was performed in batch culture in a BOD rotary shaker using four different species as Candida shehatae, Pichia stipitis, Candida tropicalis and Debaromyces hansenii under various parameters to check the optimal xylitol production. The hydrolysate was concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 70°C and detoxified using activated charcoal (5 %) which efficiently removed 83 % of inhibitory phenolic biproducts. Effect of nutrients concentration, pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5), temperature (20, 30, 40°C) and agitation speed (150, 200, 250 rpm) on growth of different yeast and xylitol production was studied and compared. The optimal xylitol yield was found to be 0.65 g xylitol/g of xylose from Candida tropicalis at 30°C, pH 5.5 with an agitation of 200 rpm, 2.5 g/L ammonium sulphate as a nutrient and 0.615 xylitol/g of xylose from Pichia stipitis respectively after 72 h of incubation.

Keyword: Microbial fermentation, water hyacinth biomass, xylitol production, yeast, detoxification.

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FORAGE OF VETCH CULTIVARS (Vicia sativa L., Vicia villosa ROTH.)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VII(14)–5

 

Natalia GEORGIEVA, Ivelina NIKOLOVA, Yordanka NAYDENOVA

 Institute of Forage crops, Gen. V. Vazov Street, 89, 5800–Pleven, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: imnatalia@abv.bg

Abstract. The chemical composition, plant cell–wall fiber components content, in vitro enzyme digestibility, potential protein and energy feeding value of forage of seven vetch cultivars were evaluated. Vicia sativa L. (cultivars Liya, Lorina, Vilena, Moldovskaya, Obrazets 666) and Vicia villosa Roth. (cultivars Violeta and Viola) were planted at the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven (Bulgaria) during 2012–2014 period. The origin of Obrazets 666 is Bulgaria and of the rest six cultivars–Moldova. Vicia villosa cultivars revealed a greater content of CP and fiber components, measured as NDF, ADF and ADL (211.4, 451.9, 378.5, 74.0 g kg–1 DM respectively) in comparison with Vicia sativa cultivars (189.5, 409.2, 352.4, 67.9 g kg–1 DM respectively). Quality of the herbage in terms of digestibility was 63.9% IVDMD for Vicia sativa and 52.9 % IVDMD for Vicia villosa. The nutritive value based on arithmetical rank sum of all studied parameters (chemical composition, in vitro enzyme digestibility, protein and energy feeding value) showed better forage quality of V. sativa compared to V. villosa. With the highest nutritive value was distinguished cultivars Liya, Vilena and Moldovskaya, which could be used as germplasm in future breeding programmes for quality improvement.

Keyword: fiber, digestibility, vetch, feeding value.