STUDY ON PERENNIAL LEGUME-GRASS MIXTURES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAIN

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–34

Tatyana BOZHANSKA

 Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600-Troyan,

281 Vasil Levski Street, Troyan, BULGARIA

Corresponding author: E-mail: tbozhanska@mail.bg

Abstract. The growth and development of six variants of legume–grass grasslands were observed in order to assess the productivity and quality of forage of some perennial grass mixtures in the conditions of the Central Balkan Mountain. The mixture of bird’s–foot–trefoil–red fescue demonstrated the highest productivity of dry biomass (749.46 kg/da) for the three years of study, followed by grasslands of red clover together with timothy–grass (734.06 kg/da) and tall fescue (712.81 kg/da). In mixed grasslands, white clover showed good compatibility both with Kenthucky bluegrass and perennial rye–grass. Better realization of clover plants with a higher dry matter productivity had the variants of legume grass Poa pratensis L. Forage of white clover–Kentucky bluegrass was the richest in proteins (151.6 g kg–1 DM), with the highest dry matter digestibility (712.6 g kg–1 DM) and with the lowest fiber content (NDF–356.5 g kg–1 DM; ADF–226.4 g kg–1 DM and cellulose–192.4 g kg–1 DM) of the cell walls with exception of lignin. Plants of Dactylis glomerata L. dominated with over 75% in the forage of variant with blue hybrid alfalfacock’s foot. Soil (pHKCL=4.3) and climate conditions of the region are the reason for the weaker growth of alfalfa grassland and the high degree of variability in terms of its realization, compared to legume grasses in the other variants. The plant grassland had the highest fiber content (346.3 g kg–1 DM), the lowest content of protein (114.9 g kg–1 DM), and the lowest dry matter digestibility (630.7 g kg–1 DM) compared to the other mixtures included in the experiment.

Keyword: Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense, Festuca pratensis, Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Phleum pratense, Dactylis glomerata, Grass mixtures, Productivity and quality of forage.

IMPROVEMNET OF HAIRY ROOT INDUCTION IN Artemisia annua BY VARIOUS STRAINS OF Agrobacterium rhizogenes

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–25

Sona AYADI HASSAN1*, Zahra BELBASI2

 1Department of biotechnology, Faculty of advanced sciences and technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IRAN

2Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IRAN

Corresponding author: sonaayadi@rocketmail.com

Abstract. Plants have been considered as a significant source of drugs since ancient times. Secondary metabolites derived from plants have revealed therapeutic properties. Artemisinin and its derivatives are the most famous terpenoids in the Asteraceae family. Nowadays, numerous attempts have been done to improve the production rate of these kinds of terpenoids in biotechnological procedures which most of them are allocated to hairy root cultures using Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4, A7, Ar15834, Ar9534, Ar9402, Ar318 and Ar50). In this study, we tried to investigate the effect different strains of A. rhizogenes on frequency of hairy root induction in A. annua. Explants were prepared from leaves of A. annua. Then they were soaked in A. rhizogenes solution to be infected. They were cultured in MS medium for 14 days. For decreasing plant necrosis, two different concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5 % were added to the medium as anti–oxidant. For hairy root induction approve, PCR method was applied. Hairy roots were obvious in plantlets on ½ MS medium culture. The presence of T–DNA in different transformed lines of hairy roots was investigated by PCR. The results indicated that making 0.5 % ascorbic acid MS Medium will lead to a dramatic decrease (about 80 %) in plantlet’s browning. In addition, the highest and lowest transformation rate of 79 % and 24 % were yielded, infecting the leaf explants of A. annua by A7 and Ar318 strains respectively. To sum it up, it was shown that all mentioned strains are capable to induce hairy root in A. annua by the help of ascorbic acid as an inhibitor for plantlet’s browning. Because of hormone–autotrophic feature and great lateral branches of hairy roots, the induced hairy roots of A. annua can be applied to increase artemisinin production in pharmaceutical industry.

Keyword: Artemisia annua; Agrobacterium rhizogenes; artemisinin; hairy root.

VARIABILITY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF SOME IMPORTANT ALFALFA GERMPLASM TRAITS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–18

Diana H. MARINOVA

 Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflic”, 1 “Prof. Ivan Ivanov” str. 7007 Rousse, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: diana27hm@abv.bg

Abstract. The study was carried out from 2010 to 2013 under specific soil and climatic conditions in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflik”–Rousse. The objective of the study was to establish variability of some important alfalfa traits and relationships between them in alfalfa germplasm. The relatively low variation coefficient for quality traits–leaf/stem ratio (1.22 %) and crude protein content (2.16 %) was established, and the highest coefficient for stem number per unit area and dry matter yield. Dry matter yield was strictly and positively correlated with stems number per m2 and moderately negatively with leaf/stem ratio. A weak negative relationship between dry matter yield and protein content was found. The result of present investigation indicated that number of stems could be a successful criterion in selection for alfalfa yield increase and quality improvement, respectively.

Keyword: alfalfa, crud protein, dry matter yield, leaf/stem ratio, stems number.

 

DEVICES FOR BACTOFUGATION IN THE FUNCTION OF PROVIDING QUALITY LONG–LIFE MILK

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–12

Vangelica JOVANOVSKA1*, Zlatko SOVRESKI2, Mila ARAPCESKA1, Gordana DIMITROVSKA1, Katerina BOJKOVSKA1, Elena JOSHEVSKA1, Katerina JOVANOVSKA1

 1PhD, University St.’’Kliment Ohridski’’, Faculty of biotechnical sciences, Partizanska b.b–7000, Bitola, MACEDONIA

2PhD, University St.’’Kliment Ohridski’’, Faculty of Technical sciences, Makedonska Falanga b.b–7000, Bitola, MACEDONIA

*Corresponding author: e–mail: vangelicaj@yahoo.com

Abstract. The milk is a biological fluid with a very complex composition, yellowish white color and distinctive flavor and aroma. Dairy industry has a number of specific features that distinguish it from other agricultural sectors. The purpose of this labor was to display the influence of bactofugation on the long–life milk quality. Bactofugation process as significant mechanical process for bacterial removing without heating, are very important factors in long–life milk production. The subject of examination was a cow’s milk as: raw milk immediately after receipt in the dairy and bactofugation milk. On all samples were exanimate the microbiological parameters (Coagulase positive staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Aerobic mesophilic bacteria) and chemical parameters (percentage of milk fats, proteins, lactose, non–fat dry matter). The bactofugation, like device for mechanical removing of microorganisms, using a centrifugal force, allows production of quality long–life milk without further thermal treatment on it.

Keyword: raw milk, bactofugator, long–life milk, chemical parameters, microbiological parameters.

DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF A MODEL WATER RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR INCUBATION AND REARING OF Cyprinus carpio

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–5

Korede ALABI*, Shola G. SOLOMON**, Robert G. OKAYI**

*Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos. NIGERIA

**Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, NIGERIA

*Corresponding author e–mail: talk2fish85@gmail.com Tel: +2348036977644

Abstract. This study was designed to design and construct a model Water Recirculatory System and use same to carryout induced breeding and larvae rearing of Cyprinus carpio using hormonal techniques. A simple 660 litres capacity Water Recirculation System (WRS) technology was developed, built and evaluated for this study. The WRS was designed and constructed in relation to waste production and waste removal kinetics. The system rearing troughs were made of black and white rectangular plastic containers. Efficiency of the design method and the effect of color of rearing unit were tested on growth performance and survival of Cyprinus carpio hatchlings, to assess the technical functionality of the system. The experiment was divided into two phases; artificial propagation of each Fish species using synthetic hormone and rearing the Fry for 14 days; and rearing the 14 days old fry for 42 days. In the first phase of the experiment, hatchability was estimated, while in the second phase, growth performance and nutrient utilization were investigated. Daily water replacement was maintained at 10 % of total volume of water in the WRS throughout the experimental period. Results of breeding/rearing trial gave high survival rate and fast growth rate of hatchlings. Hatchability results indicated that Black troughs had higher hatchability rate of 69.80±0.55 than white troughs 67.45±0.99. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the Treatments in Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), Food Conversion Efficiency (FCE) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER). High % Shooters was recorded in Black troughs than in white troughs for the specie studied. % Survival rate was high (71.33 %) in Black troughs than in white troughs (53.33 %). Based on the results of the water quality parameter analysis, the system was technically able to deliver optimum water quality for Fish growth and survival of Cyprinus carpio incubated and reared within system facility. This study revealed that the designed system can be used to incubate and culture hatchlings of Cyprinus carpio.

Keyword: Water Recirculatory System, Cyprinus carpio.