Assessment of variation in seed morphological traits in Phaseolus sp. landraces from western Anatolia

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-75

Huseyin CANCI1*, Mehmet Zahit YEKEN2, Faik KANTAR3, Murat BOZKURT3, Vahdettin CIFTCI2, Goksel OZER4

1Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya, TURKEY

2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, TURKEY

3Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya, TURKEY

4Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, TURKEY

Corresponding author: Tel.: +90 242 227 44 00 (25 42)

Abstract. Seed size, seed shape and seed colour are easily discernible phenotypic traits of beans in the market. Consumers often have specific preferences to different combinations of seed size, shape and colour. Local landraces are usually grown for their desired organoleptic and seed properties by consumers. This study investigated the variability in seed size attributes, seed shape, visual seed colour properties and seed luminosity/chromaticity properties of the germplasm of 255 landraces representing major local bean types grown in 20 provinces in Western Anatolia Region of Turkey. Measurements were made on seeds from representative single plants for seed size index, 100 seed weight, seed length, seed width, seed thickness, seed width in cross section, seed shape, seed degree of curvature in kidney types, seed shape in cross section, number of seed colors, main seed color, secondary seed colour, distribution of secondary seed color, seed veining, colour of hilum ring and values of L (Luminosity), chromaticity a*, chromaticity b*, chroma (C) and hue angle. Data were statistically analysed, principle component analysis was carried out, the germplasm was classified by UPGMA dendograms and selections were made on the bases of GGE biplot analysis. Landraces showed a considerable diversity for seed size, seed shape and seed colour trait measured. All seed size variables ranged by 2–10–fold within the germplasm. 100–seed weight ranged ten–fold from very small seeded Meso–American types (18.4 g, e.g. AYD–8, KTH–30, MGL– 1, DNZ–1 and BRD–24) to very large seeded Andean types (182.3 g, e.g. MGL–37, PKS–1, ANT–33, MGL–31 and ANT–16). Seed shape also varied as kidney–shaped (96 landraces), circular to elliptic (73), circular (58), elliptic (27) and rectangular (1) shapes. Main and secondary seed colours had considerable variation within the germplasm with 151 landraces had white, 31 grey, 31 beige, 23 brown, 8 violet, 5 red and 4 black main seed colour whereas 24 landraces had violet followed by 17 black and 14 red secondary seed colour. Landraces exhibited a large variation for chromaticity and luminosity variables. L value ranged between 20.3 and 90.1 representing a 4.5–fold variation. The landraces in the germplasm were assessed and characterised on the bases of diversity in seed morphological traits. Selections were made using UPGMA dendogram and GGE–biplot for production and breeding bean cultivars for preferences of changing consumer demands.

Keyword: Beans, seed size, seed shape, seed colour, luminosity, chromaticity.


Study of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Amaranthus caudatus L.

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-66

Safa LOTFI 1*, Habibeh KORDSARDOUEI2, Hakimeh OLOUMI3

1Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, IRAN

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, IRAN

3Department of Ecology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, IRAN

*Corresponding author:,

Abstract. Nowadays, the replacement of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants of plant origin in the food industry has been widely considered. In addition, the results of scientific researches demonstrate that consumption of plants with high antioxidant capacity reduces the incidence of many diseases such as all types of cancer, cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s diseases and also helps the treatment process of the diseases. In this research, the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces and Amaranthus caudatus L. flowers was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu method and also the antioxidant capacity of two extracts was studied using FRAP and DPPH methods. The results showed that the total phenolic content of A. caudatus and H. sabdariffa ethanol extracts were 3.25 ± 0.34 and 1.73 ± 0.21 mg GAE g–1 extract, respectively. The results of two FRAP and DPPH assays also indicate the significant antioxidant capacity of these two plants extracts. The comparison of EC50 obtained from the DPPH assay of two extracts showed that the antioxidant activity of the A. caudatus extract is higher than that of H. sabdariffa, and therefore there is a direct relationship between the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extracts and their antioxidant activity. Overall, the results of the present study show that these two medicinal plants can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries, which requires more scientific research on them.

Keyword: antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Amaranthus caudatus L., medicinal plant.


Health–beneficial compounds from edible and waste bulb components of sweet onion genotypes organically grown in northern Europe

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-58

Victor NEMTINOV1, Nadezhda GOLUBKINA2*, Andrey KOSHEVAROV2, Yulia KONSTANCHUK1, Anna MOLCHANOVA2, Sergei NADEZHKIN2, Vincenzo Michele SELLITTO3, Gianluca CARUSO4

1Federal State Budget Scientific Institution ‘Research Institute of Agriculture’ 295453, Simferopol, RUSSIA

2 Federal Scientific Center of Vegetable Production, Selectsionnaya str. 14, VNIISSOK, Odintsovo district, Moscow region 143072, RUSSIA

3Msbiotech S.p.A., Larino (Campobasso), ITALY

4 Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici (Naples), ITALY

*Corresponding author:

Abstract.The onion sweet bulb genotypes grown in the Crimean republic (Russia) have a high nutritional value, but have been poorly characterized so far. Research was carried out in order to assess quality, antioxidant and mineral composition features of 9 Crimean genotypes in comparison with the Italian sweet variety ‘Tropea’. ‘Yaltinsky 6А’ showed the highest yield. Beam Promine attained the highest values of bulb dry residue, soluble solids and total sugars, but the lowest monosaccharides content. The Crimean genotypes showed higher levels of ascorbic acid and total acidity than ‘Tropea’, but lower concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn. The Crimean genotypes examined showed interesting yield and quality performances, and also the potentiality to valorizing the bulb peel for extracting health–beneficial compounds such as antioxidants.

Keyword: Allium cepa L.; Crimean and Italian varieties; sugars; pungency; flavonoids; ascorbic acid.

Effect of biological products on the population of aphids and chemical components in alfalfa

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–X(19)–51

Ivelina NIKOLOVA1*, Natalia GEORGIEVA1

1Department Tehnology and ecology of forage crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author Tel. +359 884684575

Abstract. One of the most serious pests of commercial Fabaceae crops especially alfalfa is the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The pea aphid damages crops directly caused chlorosis and necrosis, leading to significant alfalfa loss worldwide. Hence the need for aphid management and use of insecticides. It was studied the effect of a biological insecticide Agricolle and two biological nano–fertilizers (Nagro and Lytovit) to a control of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) and changes in plastid pigment and total nitrogen contents in alfalfa. On the basis of the sweeping with the entomological net average number of aphids and mortality were calculated on the 1, 5, 7 and 9 days after treatment. It was found that the treatment with biological products Agricolle, Nagro and Litovit used alone and in combinations reduced Acyrthosiphon pisum density in a different range. After application of Agricolle with Nagro combination, followed by Agricolle was found the lowest density and the highest aphid mortality. Biological products increased the total pigment content as the highest impact demonstrated used of Agricolle with Nagro–33.4 % increase, followed by treatment with Nagro–29.6 %. Chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b as well as green pigments to carotenoids ratio determined plants treated with Agricolle + Nagro and Nagro as plants with the best physiological state. Alfalfa fixed the most nitrogen (respectively more with 2.77 and 2.95 kg N/kg dry mass yield in compared to control) in the combined treatment of Aricolle with Nagro and Litovit.

Keyword: Agricolle, nano–fertilizers, Acyrthosiphon pisum, mortality, plastid pigments, nitrogen.

Combined effects of some chemicals on beta–galactosidase activity using a new semiparametric error in variables model

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-42


1Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakır, TURKEY,

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakır, TURKEY,

*Corresponding author:

Abstract. The combined effects of some chemicals on β–galactosidase activity by Anoxybacillus sp. FMB1 were studied using semiparametric errors in variables methodology when the error has an unknown distribution. An experimental design was chosen to explain six chemicals, dithiothreitol (DTT), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), N–ethylmaleimide (NEM), iodoacetamide (Iod A), b–Mercaptoethanol (β–Mer) and 1,10–phenanthroline (phen) and to investigate the results. This technique constrained the number of real experiments performed while considering conceivable interactions between six chemicals. The optimal combinations of chemical concentration for maximum β–galactosidase activity was determined as 8 mM DTT, 8 mM PMSF, 8 mM NEM, 8 mM Iod A, 2 mM β–Mer and 2 mM phen. We also compared the no measurement error case and errors in variables case. The proposed estimator shown has better performances..

Keyword: β–galactosidase, inhibition, semiparametric EIV Model, unknown distribution

Effect of supplementation different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and some blood biochemical in male Holstein calves

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-35


1 Department of Animal Science, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, IRAN

2 Professor of Ruminant Nutrition, Department of Animal science, Agriculture Faculty, Urmia University, Urmia, IRAN

3 Professor of Ruminant Nutrition, Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Tabriz University, Tabriz, IRAN

4 Agriculture Sciences Faculty, Payam e Noor University, Tehran, IRAN

5 Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Urmia University, Urmia, IRAN

*Corresponding author: email:

Abstract. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on performance in Holstein calves. A total of sixteen 17 month of age male Holstein calves with average of (540 ± 5 Kg) weight were selected and were divided into four groups in order to the experimental complete randomized block design. The calves were fed by control groups with no fat protected and 2, 4 and 6 percentages of fat protected oils until 60 days. Feed intake, Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured. The blood samples were taken to investigate the serum content of plasma protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL. Additionally, the fat and protein digestibility in each groups were measured. Data from this study showed that the highest FI and BW and the better FCR was related to the calves fed by 2 % fat protected supplement but there were no significant effects on calves performance between treatments. Feeding the fat protected supplementations lead to higher protein and fat digestibility none significantly. The higher use of calcium salts of fatty acids supplements lead to higher serum triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and LDL significantly (P≤0.05). There were no significant differences between treatments about glucose, phosphorous and protein content in the calves were feed by different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids supplements. In conclusion we could demonstrated that using of different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids may have beneficial effects on performance and some blood biochemical in the male Holstein Calves.

Keyword: blood biochemical, calcium salts of fatty acids, performance, Holstein calves.

Color, microbiological and sensory properties of low–fat probiotic yogurt supplemented with Spirulina platensis and Ferulago angulata hydroalcoholic extracts during cold storage

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-20


1 Department of  Food Science & Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, IRAN

2 Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, IRAN

Corresponding Author:, Phone: +989396442969

Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ferulago angulata and Spirulina platensis extract at 0.1 to 1% (v/v) on the color parameters, survivability of starter cultures and Lactobacillus acidophilus and sensory characteristics in low–fat yogurt during 1, 7, 14 and 21 d. The results showed that by increasing the extract concentration, average values of b* and light intensity (L*) was declined and control, showed the highest lightness during storage. Treatments containing F. angulata extract had a higher a* and b* values and color intensity (C*) in compartion with S. platensis extract. The mean values of total color difference (∆E*) at the first week and last two weeks were higher in the treatments containing S. platensis and F. angulata, respectively. The mean L. bulgaricus count more than St. thermophilus and the mean count of starter cultures in the treatments containing S. platensis extract was significantly higher than F. angulata extract. However, the survivability of startercultures and L. acidophilus at the endof the refrigerated storage was more than standardized number of bacteria (107–108cfu/ml) in yogurt. The color, flavor, consistency and overall acceptability scores of treatments containing S. platensis extract were significantly higher than the F. angulata extract. Therefore, these additives could be used successfully without having detrimental effects on bio–yogurt.

Keywords: Ferulago angulata, Lactobacillus acidophilus, probiotic, Spirulina platensis, yogurt.

Proposal integral use of Divi–divi fruits (Caesalpinia coriaria) in the scope: oil well drilling, folder and social development

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-11


1DVSA Intevep Urb. Santa Rosa, sector El Tambor, Los Teques, Edo. Miranda, Apartado 76343

Caracas, 1020–A, VENEZUELA

2Universidad Central de Venezuela, Departamento de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Caracas, 1050, VENEZUELA

*Corresponding author:, Phone: +584264113140

In this research there appear the potentialities of the fruit and powder of divi–divi as: water–based drilling fluids (WBDF) environmentally friendly deflocculant, leguminous fodder for ruminants and sustainable jobs in farm communities, able to influence the primary forests protection. Tannins extract in the form of divi–divi fruit powder (Caesalpinia coriaria), contains 47.0 wt % of total tannins (hydrolysable tannins plus condensed tannins) of which 30.0 wt % corresponds to hydrolysable tannins. Divi–divi tannins in WBDF showed nine (9) times deflocculant efficiency than heavy metals commercial modified tannins. Moreover, commercial modified tannins do not improve their deflocculant efficiency with increased tannin content. Bromatology and structural analysis of fruits (wet base), they show it as a maintenance fodder: 5.33 % w/w crude protein, 9.68 wt % moisture, 77.03 wt % nitrogen–free extract (NFE) (Weende Method), 11.38 wt % neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 5.52 wt % acid detergent fiber (ADF) (Van Soest method). Social–productive production of 15 divi–divi tannins in artisanal way with help of rural community Boquerón, belonging to the municipality Pedro María Freites of Anzoátegui state, there served as developing socially productive pilot model that as well as beneficial at 245 families, whose raw material is conceived as non–wood forest products (NWFP), improve the sustainable utilization of NWFP in order to contribute to the wise management of the world’s forests and to improve income generation and food security.

Keywords: divi–divi tannins, deflocculant, social–environmental development, tannins bromatology analysis, water–based drilling fluids.

Assessing the level of heavy metals in different geographical areas in Romania

DOI: 10.7904/2068-4738-X(19)-5

MalinaPUIA1, Beniamin MIHON1, Bianca IONESCU1,Eugenia BUTUCEL1, Adriana CHICINAS1, Elena FARCAS1, HelgaPUSKAS1, Camelia RADUCU1,Adina Lia LONGODOR1, Aurelia COROIAN1*

1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj–Napoca, Faculty of Animal Science and Biotehnology, Manastur Str. 3–5, 400272, Cluj–Napoca, ROMÂNIA

*Corresponding author: Aurelia Coroian, email:

Abstract. The concentration of heavy metals in the meat was analysed in seven geographical areas in Romania. The concentrations of heavy metals in the meat was determined with spectrophotometric method. In the present study, the higher heavy metals concentration was found in Mures, Satu–Mare and Salaj areas, while the lower concentration was observed in Brasov and Bistriţa–Nasaud areas. The geographical areas considered in this study are the most polluted areas of Romania and have the highest heavy metals concentration in meat.

Keyword: Carob pods syrup, fermentation, Lactobacillus bulgaricus.