Content Issue 21, Jan.–Jun. 2020

Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of biofilm producing gram negative bacilli isolated from Kilis local cheese

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–XI(21)–58



 1Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Kilis 7 Aralık University, 79000, Kilis, TURKEY

2Institute of Science and Technology, Kilis 7 Aralık University, 79000, Kilis, TURKEY

*Corresponding author: Kilis 7 Aralık University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Kilis, 79000, Turkey. Tel.: +90 348 822 23 50/1450; Fax: +90 348 822 23 51, email:,

Abstract. In present study, it was investigated to determine the presence of Gram–negative enteric bacilli from dairy products including raw milk and cheese traditionally manufactured in Kilis. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles and ability of biofilm forming of strains isolated from Kilis local cheese were also researched. Totally, 30 Gram negative enteric bacilli that are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae was isolated from Kilis cheese sample. Out of 30 isolates, 11 strains (37 %) were revealed to be biofilm producer by Congo red agar analysis. 100 % of these isolates showed sensitivity to aztreonam, cefazolin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefuroxime axetil, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, meropenem streptomycin and tetracycline. On the other side, 11 strains were resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin and penicillin. MAR indexs of these enteric isolates were found as 0.23. Our results clearly indicate that antibiotic resistance of biofilm–forming Enterobacteriaceae spp. in Kilis cheese may adversely affected the safety and quality of local foods and human health.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Biofilm, Enteric bacteria, Food quality.

Comparison of five wax apples (Syzygium samarangense) from Dong Thap Province, Vietnam based on morphological and molecular data

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–XI(21)–50


Kim–Bup NGUYEN1, Gia–Buu TRAN2, Hong–Thien VAN2*

 1Dong Thap University, 783 Pham Huu Lau Street, Cao Lanh City, Dong Thap Province, VIETNAM

2Institute of Biotechnology and Food–technology, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, 12 Nguyen Van Bao Street, Go Vap District, Ho Chi Minh City, VIETNAM

*Corresponding author:


Abstract. Wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) is a popular species with high economic value in Vietnam and other countries in Asia. This research analyzed and compared morphological and molecular characteristics (ITS and trnL–F sequences) of 5 varieties of wax apple in Dong Thap Province, Vietnam, including of An Phuoc, Xanh Duong, Hong Dao, Hoa An, and Sua wax apples. The results revealed that five varieties of wax apples had a board range of morphological characteristics, especially in shape, color, and size of fruits. Furthermore, molecular analysis results showed that ITS and trnL–F sequences of four varieties of wax apples, including of Xanh Duong, Hong Dao, Hoa An, and Sua, were identical with 100 % similarity whereas An Phuoc wax apple had differences in one and five positions in ITS and trnL–F sequences as compared to other varieties. The phylogenetic tree was established by comparison of ITS sequences of five varieties in this study and other varieties in Genbank (NCBI) and showed that four varieties of wax apples (Xanh Duong, Hong Dao, Hoa An, and Sua) were 100 % match with two varieties grown in China (KC815987, KC800610) and one variety planted in Sri Lanka (MN104146). On the other hand, ITS sequence of An Phuoc wax apple was high similarity with another wax apple variety planted in Sri Lanka (MN104142).

Keyword: Wax apple, ITS, trnL–F, Phylogeny.

Evaluation of antibacterial effects of some traditional plants against pathogen microorganisms

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–XI(21)–38


Kemal GÜVEN1, Fatma MATPAN BEKLER2*, Seçil YALAZ3, Reyhan GÜL GÜVEN4, Merve DEMİRTAŞ AKSU1, Mert İPEKÇİ1, Firdevs Rozan TUŞAR1, Nazlı POLAT1

1Dicle University, Science Faculty, Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, 21280 Diyarbakır/TURKEY

2Dicle University, Science Faculty, Biology Department, 21280 Diyarbakır/TURKEY

3Dicle University, Science Faculty, Statistics Department, 21280 Diyarbakır/Turkey

4Dicle University, Ziya Gökalp Education Faculty, Science Teaching Section, 21280 Diyarbakır/TURKEY

*Corresponding author:


Abstract. Antimicrobial resistance has been an increasing problem in public health around the world. Natural plants can be utilised as an important source for antimicrobial agents to be used in place of synthetic drugs due to their costs and side effects. Thus, it is essential to find out new, effective, safer natural antimicrobial products. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activities of different traditional plants against pathogen microorganisms were tested. The extracts of all plants were prepared in four different solvents (ethanolic, methanolic, hexane and aqueous) and then used for disc–diffusion method. Each assay was repeated in triplicate. The analysis was carried out using two–way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The highest antimicrobial activities were obtained by methanolic extracts of Sorbus domestica against E. coli, while Methanolic Extracts of Epilobium angustifolium were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, Hexanic Extract of Tragacanth gum and S. domestica had high antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, respectively.

Keyword: Antibacterial activity, Tragacanth gum, methanolic/ Hexanic extracts, traditional plants.

Optimization of extraction technology for determination of caffeic and chlorogenic acid in dandelion

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–XI(21)–26


Zhe WU, Zhaojia LI, Zhizhong XUE, Xuelin LU, Xiuping WANG*


Institute of Coastal Agriculture, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, 63 Binhai street, Caofeidian, Tangshan 063299, CHINA

*Corresponding author: Tel: +86 315 8723260


Abstract. In order to obtain the optimum extraction technology for rapid and accurate determination of phenolic acids from dandelion in laboratory, methanol was used as extractant, and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction process combined with the quality evaluation by the fingerprint analysis. Results showed that the input of cellulase was beneficial to the stability of the extraction. The liquid–material ratio promoted the extraction rate, and the methanol with the extraction time or the liquid–material ratio showed synergistic effect on the increase of extraction rate. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the main compounds and their match degree with the control fingerprint map were all 100 % according to the HPLC fingerprint analysis. Thus, the two compounds were used as main evaluation indexes to obtain the optimal extraction conditions, namely that liquid–material ratio of 300, methanol concentration of 40% and ultrasonic extraction time of 120 min. The obtained extraction process reduced the operation cost and maintained the stability of detection results. It could be directly used for the determination of phenolic acids from dandelion in laboratory.

Key words: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, dandelion, fingerprint, optimization.

Effects of titanium and silicon nanoparticles on antioxidant enzymes activity and some biochemical properties of Cuminum cyminum L. under drought stress

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–XI(21)–19


Mehdi SALAJEGHEH, Mohammadreza YAVARZADEH ⃰, Arezo PAYANDEH and Mohammad Mehdi AKBARIAN


Department of Agriculture, Bam Branch, Islamic Azad University, BAM, IRAN



Abstract. Environmental stresses change antioxidant and non–enzymatic activities of plant cells. Nanoparticles may help plants against drought stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium and silicon nanoparticles on antioxidant enzymes activity and some biochemical properties of Cuminum cyminum L. under drought stress. This study was conducted based on randomized complete block design in an arrangement of split plot with three replications, and irrigation content (50, 100, and 150 mm evaporation), and foliar applications of titanium and silicon nanoparticles, and soil application of superabsorbent polymer as factors. The results showed that levels of water, titanium, silicon nanoparticles, superabsorbent polymer, and their interactions were efficient on growth of Cuminum cyminum L. Drought stress decreased relative humidity, but increased antioxidant enzyme activity, leaf proline, and carbohydrate. Application of titanium nanoparticles increased leaf proline. It was observed a significant interaction between water availability, and fertilizers on ascorbate enzyme activity (P<0.05), so that most activity (0.193 µmol/mg) was observed in 100 mm evaporative pan and foliar application of titanium. In sum, drought stress increased carbohydrate, antioxidant enzymes activity and proline contents, and decreased relative water contents.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, Cuminum cyminum, Evaporative pan, Nanotechnology, Proline

Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of Arisaema langbiangense rhizome (Araceae)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–XI(21)–12

Hong Thien VAN1, Ngo Trang VO1, Ngoc Trang NGUYEN1, Thao Nguyen LUU1, Tan Viet PHAM1 Pham Tan Quoc LE1*

1Institute of Biotechnology and Food–technology, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, 12 Nguyen Van Bao Street, Go Vap District, Ho Chi Minh City, VIETNAM 

*Corresponding Author:


Abstract. Arisaema langbiangense was an endemic species recorded in Langbiang mountain, Bidoup–Nui Ba National Park, Lac Duong District, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam. The species was a rare member belonging to Araceae family and there has not been any research on its phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity. In this study, the phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of ethanol extract from A. langbiangense rhizome was analysed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and disk diffusion method, respectively. Consequently, 12 compounds were found in the ethanol extract of A. langbiangense rhizome and the extract was proved to be able to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus.

Keyword: Antibacterial activity, Arisaema langbiangense, phytochemical composition, ethanol extract, LC–MS.

Breeding assessment of polycros progeny of elite genotypes of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–XI(21)–5




1 Experimental Station on Soybean, 61 “Ruski” Str., 5200 Pavlikeni, BULGARIA

2 Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 281” V. Levski” Str., 5600 Troyan, BULGARIA

*corresponding author:; Tel: +359 0878229771


Abstract. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the genetic variability between red clover half–sib families in terms of yields of dry forage mass during regrowing, as well as seasonal yield stability and years of use. Ten red clover elite plants selected in the past by one or more breeding criteria underwent a re–pollination in 2014. Their polycross progeny (HSFs) were examined by cuts from the first to the fourth vegetation (2015–2018) for the following indicators: green matter yield, dry matter content, dry matter yield, time for cuts formation. ‘Nika 11’ and ‘Sofia’ 52 cultivars were used as a control for high summer productivity and adaptability. In early spring growth, the polycross progeny of elite genotypes did not significantly differ in dry forage mass. In contrast, as in late spring and summer regrowing, the effect of the family was significant (P<0.05). Genotypic effects are also observed in terms of growth rate. A genetic potential for increasing the yield of dry forage mass for both late–spring and summer regrowing was found for family 2 and 3. Valuable genotypes for the breeding in relation to yield stability over seasons and age of plants, respectively years of use, can be selected in family 7, which originated from a local wild–type germplasm. The high expression in the level and stability of the observed characteristics, as well as the high estimates of general combination ability, determined ‘Nika 11’ as an important genetic source in the breeding for high forage productivity in regrowing. According to these results, ‘NIKA 11’ is used as a major component in the formation of polycross groups with the selected families.

Keywords: red clover, Trifolium pratense, breeding, half–sib families.