SAFETY AND QUALITY OF SOME VEGETABLE OILS MARKETED LOCALLY IN THE GOVERNORATE OF AL–HASA, SAUDI ARABIA

Najat A. AL–ABBAD, Amany M. M. BASUNY

Abstract. The aim of this research to identify the pattern of consumption of vegetable oils to families in the Governorate of Al–Hasa, Saudi Arabia, also, examining the safety and quality of some varieties vegetable oil marketed locally, and compare the results obtained from physical and chemical properties of eight oil samples with Saudi Arabia and International standard specification. Data were collected by the survey form was distributed to the housewife and the form included questions about the types of oils most often used in cooking and frying. The results obtained indicated that the oil most commonly used in cooked and frying foods is sunflower oil (Noor brand) (51.20% and 48.00%), respectively. On the other hand, the results of physical and chemical properties showed the significant differences between different kinds of oils. Also, there are significant differences in the values of oxidative stability, which ranged from 7.04 hr. for sunflower oil to 44 hr. for palm oil. Also, found that there were clear differences in the composition of fatty acids of oil samples, where results showed that predominant unsaturated fatty acids are linoleic acid or oleic acid and predominant saturated fatty acids is palmitic in most oil samples. Also, found that the percentage of trans fatty acids had reached 1.17 % and 5.66% in olive oil (Al–Wazeir brand) and oil (Al–Arabi brand), respectively. These percentages more than allowed in the Saudi Arabia and International standard specifications. While, mineral content of oil samples did not exceed the permissible limits according to the specifications.

Key words: oils, fats, fatty acids, oxidative stability, trans fatty acids.

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THE SIS ALGORITHM AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Andrei BĂNCILĂ, Mihaela PĂUN, Ştefan POPESCU, Laura PĂUN, George ROATĂ, Iris MATEESCU, Marian BUŢU, Andrei PĂUN, Manuela SIDOROFF

Abstract. A systematic use of the Monte Carlo method appeared since the early days of electronic computing and since then it is more present in different scientific research fields. Therefore, many techniques were developed based on this method and one of them is called sequential importance sampling. This technique is an adaptation of the Monte Carlo method that can be used to better extract samples form the domain using an importance weight function.

Key words: importance sampling, sequencial Monte Carlo, inference, importance weight

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PRODUCTION OF MAYONNAISE FROM DATE PITS OIL

Amany M. M. BASUNY, Maliha A. ALMARZOOQ

Abstract. Chemical composition of the residual pits from processing of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) variety khalas from AL–Hasa region–Saudi Arabia was investigated. The extracted oil from residual pits were analyzed for their physico–chemical proprieties, (refractive index, colour, acid value, peroxide value, iodine number, saponificaion number and unsaponifiable matter), total phenols tocopherol content, fatty acids composition, Hydrocarbons and sterols compounds by gas liquid chromatography, oxidative stability by Rancimat method at 100°C±2°C. Minerals content of date pits were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Date pits oil was used to replace oil in producing mayonnaise and sensory qualities were evaluated as compared with commercial mayonnaise was prepared from corn oil. The data demonstrate that mayonnaise containing date pits oil was superior in sensory characteristics as compared with control manufactured from corn oil. Results showed that the date pits oil could be used as nontraditional oil in some food processing such as mayonnaise products.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHENOLIC CONTENT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS

DOI: 10.7904/ 2068 – 4738 – III(6) – 111

Marian BUTU, Nicoleta ANDREI, Alina BUTU, Steliana RODINO

Abstract.The aim of the present study was to draw a comparative analysis of the content in flavones and polyphenols of the hydro alcoholic extracts obtained from two medicinal plants, namely artichoke (leaves) and respectively, licorice (root) according to the origin of the vegetal material and the method used in the preparation of the extracts.The plants used in the experiments are two indigenous medicinal plants belonging to wild and cultivated flora in Romania. Artichocke (Cynara scolymus) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) were purchased from three local companies trading medicinal plants: Plafar, Vitaplant and Franco Impex. It was evaluated the composition of the extracts in terms of the content of polyphenolic compounds expressed in caffeic acid and flavone compounds content expressed in rutin. Plant extracts were obtained by two different methods of preparation: ultrasonation and maceration with intermittent shaking.

Keywords: flavones, polyphenols, vegetal hidroalcoolic extracts

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MONITORING OF THE ENTOMOFAUNA IN ECOLOGICAL CROP ROTATION

DOI: 10.7904/2068 – 4738 – III(6) – 104

Evgeniya D. ZHEKOVA

 Abstract: Duringtheperiod 2009–2010 a monitoring of entomofauna was performed in environmentally justified crop rotation including rotation of legumes (beans, soybean) and cereals (wheat, wintering oats) in two variantscontrol (without fertilization), andfoliarfertilizationby Humustim humate fertilizer. Conventional entomological methods were used for determination of species and population density of harmful plants and their entomophaga. The results were processed by crops. Differences in species composition of entomofauna were found in variants fertilized by Humustim, compared to those without fertilization. In no one of the four crops pests in density over Economic Threshold Level (ETL) were detected. Diversity of entomophaga was explained via the favorable ecological environmental conditions and namely by the presence of the trophic factor and the lack of chemical treatments with insecticides.

Keywords: entomofauna, ecological crop rotation.

 

 

SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF WOMEN FARMERS AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE IN DELTA STATE AND IMPLICATION FOR EXTENSION SERVICES

DOI: 10.7904/2068 – 4738 – III(6) – 97

 Uchenna Ngozi UZOKWE and Josiah Chidiebere OKONKWO

 

Abstract: This study examined women farmers’ survival strategies against climate change in Delta State. The specific objectives are to: identify the adaptation strategies used by them to mitigate the effects of climate change, discover the challenges to adaptation strategies used and determine if the demographic characteristics of the women farmers influence their choice of adaptation strategies. Proportional sampling method was used to select 215 women farmers from the three Agricultural Zones of Delta State. The study revealed that the women farmers’ used these strategies to mitigate the effect of climate change on their agricultural practices: reduced use of chemical fertilizers (89%), use of organic fertilizers (88.25%), integrated pest management (85%), shifting cultivation (89.75%), crop rotation (75.50%), mulching (90.75%), cooling of pens (76.75%), tree planting (85.11%), change of crop varieties (75.75%), use of animals and birds that are more heat tolerant (88.25%). The most important challenge to adaptation strategies is lack of information (79.08%).Lack of money (49.52%) and inadequate labour (48.43%) are also worthy of note. In spite of the fact that farmers’ have other information sources apart from extension service, extension has been institutionalized to provide information and other agricultural services to farmers, therefore it needs to be well positioned and better equipped in the state to be relevant in meeting the needs of farmers.

 Keywords: adaptation measures, climate change, extension services, women farmers

 

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF FRESHWATER PRAWN MACROBRACHIUM VOLLENHOVENII (HERKLOT, 1857) CAUGHT IN WARRI RIVER

DOI: 10.7904/2068 – 4738 – III(6) – 86

 Nkeonyeasua Florence OLELE, Prekeyi TAWARI-FUFEYIN and Josiah Chidiebere OKONKWO

Abstract: A total number of 338 specimens of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii were bought from fisher folks who fished from Ubeji, Jala and Soroghagbene; but marketed their landings at Ubeji. Specimens were collected at monthly intervals between March and November, 2011. The male to female sex ratio established was 1:2:3. The size at first maturity was 9.0 cm for males and 10.0 cm for females. The length–weight relationship revealed an increase in total length of each specimen as body weight increased. The regression coefficient ‘r’ was significant at p&< 0.05 for male (0.901) and female (0.644) specimens. An average condition factor of 3.9 and 2.74 was recorded for males and females respectively. The Gonado–Somatic–Index (GSI) was generally higher, especially during the month of July for females (0.60) than for males (0.50). Distinct histological changes were observed in the gonads of both sexes. Gonad development revealed five distinct stages (dominant, developing, developed, ripe and spent) for both sexes. Fecundity ranged between 5,540–28,470 eggs, and was highly correlated with total length (0.979) but not with body weight (0.185). Fecundity was highest in the month of July (20,113) and lowest in the month of August (6,140). It could be concluded that matured specimens probably spawn, in March and in July, when GSI were at their peaks. This pattern of breeding suggests that they were capable of multiple spawning within a single reproductive season.

Key words: length–weight relationship, condition factor, GSI, maturity stages, fecundity and Macrobrachium vollenhovenii

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