Effect of Spermine, Epibrassinolid and their interaction on inflorescence buds and fruits abscission of pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.), “Ahmad–Aghai” cultivar

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–105

Fereshte BARAZESH1, Hakimeh OLOUMI2*, Fatemeh NASIBI1, Khosrow M. KALANTARI1

1Biology Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, IRAN

2Department of Ecology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, IRAN

*Corresponding author: E–mail: oloumi.ha@gmail.com, Tel: +98343776612

Abstract. Several physiological problems such as abscission of inflorescence buds and fruit, incidence of blank, non–split and deformed nuts leads to diminish yield of pistachio trees. This research designed study the effects of epibrassinolid and spermine application on fruit disorders and abscission on Pistacia vera “Ahmad–Aghai” cultivar. Shoots, of pistachio trees sprayed with Epi–epibrassinolid and spermine, with three replicates. The hormonal treatments consisted of, 0.5 and 1 ppm Epi–Br and 100 and 200 ppm Spm and their combination. Some yield traits including inflorescence and fruit abscission were studied. Fruit abscission diminished significantly in all treatments in comparison with untreated hormonal trees. Epibrassinolid and spermine treatments decreased fruit blankness percentage and ethylene emission in compared with control. Simlutanouse application of epibrassinolid and spermine effectively raised split percentage in compared to each hormonal treatment alone. Chlorophyll content and carbohydrate content significantly increased by spermine 100 and 200 ppm, epibrassinolid 0.5 ppm and combination of spermine and epibrassinolid 0.5 in compared with the control. According to the results, it seems that spermine, epibrassinolid and combination of these hormones could significantly reduce fruit abscission and improve some of the physiological parameters in pistachio trees, probably through the antagonistic effects on ethylene production.

Keyword: Ethylene emission, Fruit and bud abscission, fruit disorder, pistachio yield.

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracts from pods of Ceratonia siliqua L

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–93

Nawel OUIS1*, Ahmed HARIRI2

 1Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules and Biological Interfaces, Faculty of Science the Nature and Life, University of Mascara (UN 2901), BP.763, Sidi Said, 29000, Mascara, ALGERIA

2Bioconversion Laboratory, Microbiology Engineering and Health Safety, Faculty of Science the Nature and Life, University of Mascara (UN 2901), BP.763, Sidi Said, 29000, Mascara, ALGERIA

Corresponding Author: nawel_chim@yahoo.fr, Tel. 00213 6 61 72 11 90

Abstract. This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of the carob. The results of preliminary phytochemical assessed showed that the alkaloid bases and salts, flavones aglycones, reducing compounds, fatty acids, polyterpenes, catechin tannins, volatile oils, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, sterol glycosides and terpenes, amino acids and saponins are classes of chemical groups present in the pods of Ceratonia siliqua. The pods are characterized by 87 ± 1.0 % dry matter, 55 ± 0.2 % total sugars, 4 ± 0.1 % proteins, 7 ± 0.4 % lipids, 4 ± 0.3 ash. We have found that the pod has a 10.56 ± 0.2 Na, 0.75 ± 0.1 Zn, 0.55 ± 0.3 Cu, 41.7 ± 0.2 Mg, 210 ± 0.3 Ca and 1150 ± 0.2 mg/100g K. Pods of carob present 71.6 ± 2.10 mg/100g of flavonoids, 56.51 ± 1.02 mg/100g of alkaloids, 41.25 ± 1.36 mg/100g of saponins and 1.18 ± 0.2 mg/100g of tannins. Flavonoids fractions were extracted using organic solvents with different polarity. The ethyl acetate extract has the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids 259.4 ± 4.2, 71.34 ± 1.08 mg EGA/g E, followed by the n–butanol extract 62.19 ± 0.13, 53.01 ± 0.11, then the crude extract 15.5 ± 0.21, 12.9 ± 0.17 and finally aqueous extract 13.39 ± 0.27, 11.13 ± 0.62. The flavonoids fractions extracted by ethyl acetate and n–butanol showed the higher antioxidant capacity determined by three methods: free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and liver lipid peroxidation compared to the crude exact and aqueous extract.

Keyword: Carob pod; phytochemical analysis; Flavonoids; Antioxidant activity.

Assessment of immunogenicity of alginate microparticle containing Brucella melitensis 16M oligo polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate in mouse

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–83

Parivash GHADERINIA1*, Reza SHAPOURI2

1Department of Microbiology, College of Science agriculture and modern technology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, IRAN

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic and Medical Science, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, IRAN

*Corresponding author: Parivash_gh1356@yahoo.com

Abstract. Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella bacteria, affecting animals and humans. It is found as an endemic disease in many parts of the world, especially in the Middle East, Central Asian, and South American countries. The objective of this study was to prepare alginate microparticle containing conjugate of Brucella melitensis 16 M oligopolysaccharide (OPS) with tetanus toxoid, and to assess its immunogenicity in mouse, in order to find a new method of confronting brucellosis. In this study, we extracted OPS from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and conjugated it with tetanus toxoid by amidation method. Then, the obtained conjugate was condensed by gel filtration, followed by emulcification method in iso–octane organic phase to prepare alginate microparticles containing the conjugate. In our study, sera titr of antibodies IgM, IgA, IgG2a, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG generated against oligopolysaccharide was performed by ELISA test. The final results, considering the obtained immunogenicity and the increased titer of antibodies IgG1 (19 times), IgG3 (19 times), IgG (15 times), and IgM (9 times) after injection of produced microparticle in mouse indicates appropriateness of the produced microparticle as a candidate vaccine. Thus, it could be concluded that alginate microparticles containing conjugates of B.melitensis 16 M oligopolysaccharide with tetanus toxoid can be proposed as a candidate anti–brucellosis vaccine.

Keyword: Brucella melitensis, Microparticle, Tetanus, Alginate, Vaccine.

Evaluation of the quality of the date syrups enriched by cheese whey during the period of storage

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–75

Ahmed HARIRI1*, Nawel OUIS2, Djilali BOUHADI1, Karima OULD YEROU1

 1Bioconversion Laboratory, Microbiology Engineering and Health Safety, Faculty of Science the Nature and Life, University of Mascara, (UN 2901), BP.763, 29000, Sidi Said, Mascara, ALGERIA

2Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules and Biological Interfaces, Faculty of Science the Nature and Life, University of Mascara, (UN 2901), BP.763, 29000, Sidi Said, Mascara, ALGERIA

* Corresponding author: haririahmed@yahoo.fr. Tel. 00 213 6 61 72 11 90

Abstract. This study was carried out to the valuing of the date variety H’mira (very rich’s in sugars and in nourishing elements) and the cheese whey for production of novel syrups. Four samples syrups were manufactured: control represent date syrup obtained after hot extraction at a concentration 20 %, syrups (A) represent control with 10 % of cheese whey, syrup (B) with 20 % and syrup (C) with 30 % of cheese whey. These syrups were stored during 3 weeks at 4 °C. The biochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluations for all syrups were evaluated every week of storage. The biochemical characterization of syrups showed that it’s richness in total sugars, proteins contents, ash and dry mater. The syrup of date enriched with 10 % of liquid acid cheese whey present a good biochemical quality (higher level of sugars, proteins and ash) and important sensorial properties (color, odor and flavor). This syrup can be used for beverage or as medium to fermentation for production a new products.

Keyword: Date, Syrup, H’mira, Cheese whey, Quality, Storage.

Physical-chemical parameters and the level of heavy metals in cow milk in the Baia Mare area

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–69

Aurelia COROIAN1, Vioara MIRESAN1, Daniel COCAN1, Camelia RADUCU1, Adina Lia LONGODOR1, Alexandra POP1, Gratian FEHER1, Luisa ANDRONIE1, Zamfir MARCHIS1*

 1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Animal Science and Biotehnology, Manastur Str. 3-5, 400272, Cluj-Napoca, ROMANIA

Corresponding author: zamfir.marchis@usamvcluj.ro

Abstract. Heavy metals are important pollutants in the environment and can cause problems for the organisms, and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the food chain can have adverse effects on human health. Regulations on the legally accepted amounts of heavy metals in food and in the body are very precise. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the level of heavy metals in cow milk from different localities in the Baia Mare area, considered a very polluted area. The physical–chemical parameters and heavy metals in milk were determined. The determination of heavy metals in milk was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or ICP–MS used to identify and quantify the Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn elements. The highest concentrations of Pb were observed in samples collected in Firiza locality with an average value of (43.22±0.62) (μg/L) and the lowest concentrations are for the samples analyzed in Săcălăşeni (11.53±0.33) (mg/L) (μg/L). Cd in milk did not show very large variations between localities, so the lowest concentrations were recorded in Săcălăşeni (4.32±0.13) and the highest ones were observed in the locality Firiza (10.93±0.39) (μg/L). The highest concentrations were observed for the Zn in milk, with an interval between (2255.20±7.14) (μg/L) in Săcălăşeni and (3855.80±5.11) (μg/L) for the analyzed samples from Firiza.

Keyword: milk, fat, proteins, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb.

Biological performances of alfalfa treated with mineral oil Akarzin and reduced doses of insecticide

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–62

Natalia Georgieva*, Ivelina Nikolova

 Department ‘Technology and ecology of forage crops, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, BULGARIA

* Corresponding author: imnatalia@abv.bg

Abstract. An important tendency over the past years in the conventional cultivation of crops is the reduced use of synthetic products. The experiment was carried out in the period 2014–2015 at the Institute of forage crops (Pleven) and aimed to study the biological performances of alfalfa after application of mineral oil Akarzin, either alone and in combination with reduced doses of synthetic insecticide (Eforia 045 ZC). The alone and combined use of Akarzin had no phytotoxic effect on the crop and influenced positively on the relative water content and dry mass productivity (an increase by 5.2 to 8.7 % and by 10.1 to 29.2 %, respectively). The treatment with the synthetic products also had a favorable effect on the phytosanitary status of the crop and restricted the аttack by Pseudopeziza medicaginis. The combined application of Akarzin along with Eforia 045 ZC allowed reducing the applied dose of the insecticide up to 0.03 and 0.01 %, as the same time the achieved effect in regard to the productivity exceeded the one of self–application of Eforia 045 ZC in the highest dose (0.05 %). With a view to reducing the negative impact on environment a reduction of the application dose of the insecticide after combining it with the mineral oil is recommended as an environmentally friendly approach in conditions of conventional cultivation of alfalfa.

Keyword: mineral oil, alfalfa, reduced doses, yield.

Antibacterial effects of aqueous and organic quince leaf extracts on gram–positive and gram–negative bacteria

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–54

Shahrzad NASIRI SEMNANI1, Nader HAJIZADEH2, Hamed ALIZADEH3*

1Biology Research Center, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, IRAN

2Department of Biology, Higher Education Institute of Rabe–Rashid, Tabriz, IRAN

3Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, IRAN

Corresponding author: Hamedalizadeh1986@yahoo.com, Tel & Fax: +982433465890

Abstract. Gram–positive and gram–negative bacteria are the most common/prevalent human infectious agents. With increased bacterial resistance to the chemical agents, finding herbal combinations with no side effects seems necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and acetonic Quince leaf extracts on the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumonia. Leaves were collected and dried and aqueous, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts were prepared using percolation method. Antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined using agar–well diffusion test and the average diameter of the inhibition zone was measured. Then, using broth macro–dilution test, bacterial minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined as well. The results showed that ethanolic Quince leaf extract had the greatest effect on gram–negative and gram–positive bacteria. The aqueous extract showed the weakest effect on tested bacteria. Aqueous, ethanolic and acetonic Quince leaf extracts not only had the inhibitory effect on the bacteria, but also had antibacterial properties. According to the results, Quince leaf extracts can be used against the bacterial infections of the study.

Keyword: Antibacterial effect, Quince leaf extract, Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria

Effects of electromagnetic field radiation on biochemical parameters in swiss albino mice

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–48

Seyedeh Zeinab PEIGHAMBARZADEH1*, Mehdi TAVANA1

1Veterinary Department, College of Agriculture, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, IRAN

*Corresponding author: Email: peighambarzade@yahoo.com; Phone: +98 911 127 7784

Abstract. This study investigated the effects of electromagnetic field radiated from mobile phones with frequency between 500 to 900 MHz on some biochemical parameters in 60 swiss albino mice which divided in three groups (one control and two tests). Test groups were exposed to electromagnetic wave twice a day for 20 and 40 days. Blood samples were prepared from heart and Total Protein, Albumin, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK), Cholesterol, Creatinine, Glucose, Alanin Amino Transferase (ALT), Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Amylase, Lipase, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), T3 and Tyroxin (T4) were measured and statistically analysied. According to the results, long time electromagnetic field radiation caused a significant decrease in serum creatinine, glucose, total protein, albumine, cholesterol, T4 and body weight. The amount of Serum BUN, CPK, ALP, ALT, AST, TSH and T3 significantly increased. Electromagnetic radiation has influence on biochemical parameters in mice and may effected on healthy.

Keyword: electromagnetic field radiation, biochemical parameters, Swiss albino mice.

Content of Β–glucan in cereals grown by organic and conventional farming

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–39

Mirjana MENKOVSKA1*, Dragan DAMJANOVSKI2, Vesna LEVKOV1, Natasha GJORGOVSKA1, Desimir KNEZEVIC3, Nedeljka NIKOLOVA1, Vinko STANOEV4

 1Ss.Cyril and Methodius University, Institute of Animal Science, Blv. Ilinden 92a, 1000 Skopje, R. MACEDONIA

2University St. Klement of Ohrid, Faculty of Technology and Technical Sciences, str. Dimitar Vlahov bb, 1400 Veles, R. MACEDONIA

3University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture, Kosovska Mitrovica,  Kopaonicka bb 38219 Lesak, Kosovo and MetohiaLesakSERBIA

4 Ss.Cyril and Methodius University, Institute of Agriculture, str. Aleksandar Makedonski b.b., 1000 Skopje, R. MACEDONIA

Corresponding author: Menkovska06@yahoo.com, phone ++389 2 3065120

Abstract. In this paper, the results obtained from the investigations performed on determination of the content of soluble dietary fibre component β–glucan in different cereals grown by conventional and organic farming method are presented. Because dietary fibre and its components have great importance for human and animal nutrition as well as health benefits, it was a need to investigate the content of β–glucan from cereal domestic origin. Standardized enzymatic–gravimetric method–a mixed–linkage β–glucan assay Megazyme Kit (Megazyme, Ireland) was used for determination of β–glucan content in 27 different cereal samples: barley, oat, rye and wheat, grown at three locations during 2013. The mean values of β–glucan content in cereals conventionally grown ranged from 34.41 ± 1.47 g.kg–1 db with barley, through 23.5 ± 4.52 g.kg–1 db and 15.61 ± 0.36 g.kg–1 db with oat and rye, respectively to 5.60 ± 1.02 g.kg–1 db with wheat. The mean values of β–glucan content in analyzed cereals which were organically grown ranged from 33.28 ± 2.34 g.kg–1 db with barley, 21.3 ± 1.87 g.kg–1 db with oat, 15.81 ± 2.30 g.kg–1 db with rye and to 6.04 ± 0.58 g.kg–1 db with wheat. Compared to the other cereals investigated, barley grown by either conventional or organic farming method proved to have the highest content of β–glucan demonstrating its good perspective in cereal processing and technology, food market and human and animal nutrition. The positive/negative correlations allow indirect evaluation of cereals in breeding work aimed at creation of forms with increased/decreased content of β–glucans in grain.

Keyword: barley, dietary fibre, farming type, oat, rye.

Assessment of HIV infection in cells of infected individuals

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–24

 

Jafar AGHAJANI1, Seyed Bashir MIRTAJANI1, Saba AMIRI KOJURI2, Reihane ZAHEIRE1, Saman AYOUBI*3

1Department of Biothechnology, Lahijan branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, IRAN

2Young Researchers and Elite club, Chalus branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalus, IRAN

3Department of Immunology, School of medicine, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, IRAN

*Corresponding author: olomtaghzye@gmail.com

Abstract. HIV is one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in cells of infected individuals and can cause diseases such as: encephalitis, pneumonia and chorioretinitis. The aim of this study is to investigate HIV infection in cells infected persons. This study was performed on 50 blood samples from individuals infected with HIV. Studied patients in the two groups were consumer and nonconsumer of antiretroviral drugs (mention the name of the Antiviral drug). After separation of plasma from the blood samples to detect HIV in cell culture and PCR were examined. Of the 50 patients, 56 % (n = 28) were male and 44 percent (n = 22) were women. DNA antibodies in 16 % (8 cases) were identified in the population, the prevalence of HIV infection in men 21.4 % (6 cases) and in women 1.9% (2 cases). The high prevalence of HIV infection in patients treated with CMV (full form of CMV), the treatment of HIV infection should be considered.

Keyword: HIV infection, cells infection, analyses, characteristics.