Content of Β–glucan in cereals grown by organic and conventional farming

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–39

Mirjana MENKOVSKA1*, Dragan DAMJANOVSKI2, Vesna LEVKOV1, Natasha GJORGOVSKA1, Desimir KNEZEVIC3, Nedeljka NIKOLOVA1, Vinko STANOEV4

 1Ss.Cyril and Methodius University, Institute of Animal Science, Blv. Ilinden 92a, 1000 Skopje, R. MACEDONIA

2University St. Klement of Ohrid, Faculty of Technology and Technical Sciences, str. Dimitar Vlahov bb, 1400 Veles, R. MACEDONIA

3University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture, Kosovska Mitrovica,  Kopaonicka bb 38219 Lesak, Kosovo and MetohiaLesakSERBIA

4 Ss.Cyril and Methodius University, Institute of Agriculture, str. Aleksandar Makedonski b.b., 1000 Skopje, R. MACEDONIA

Corresponding author: Menkovska06@yahoo.com, phone ++389 2 3065120

Abstract. In this paper, the results obtained from the investigations performed on determination of the content of soluble dietary fibre component β–glucan in different cereals grown by conventional and organic farming method are presented. Because dietary fibre and its components have great importance for human and animal nutrition as well as health benefits, it was a need to investigate the content of β–glucan from cereal domestic origin. Standardized enzymatic–gravimetric method–a mixed–linkage β–glucan assay Megazyme Kit (Megazyme, Ireland) was used for determination of β–glucan content in 27 different cereal samples: barley, oat, rye and wheat, grown at three locations during 2013. The mean values of β–glucan content in cereals conventionally grown ranged from 34.41 ± 1.47 g.kg–1 db with barley, through 23.5 ± 4.52 g.kg–1 db and 15.61 ± 0.36 g.kg–1 db with oat and rye, respectively to 5.60 ± 1.02 g.kg–1 db with wheat. The mean values of β–glucan content in analyzed cereals which were organically grown ranged from 33.28 ± 2.34 g.kg–1 db with barley, 21.3 ± 1.87 g.kg–1 db with oat, 15.81 ± 2.30 g.kg–1 db with rye and to 6.04 ± 0.58 g.kg–1 db with wheat. Compared to the other cereals investigated, barley grown by either conventional or organic farming method proved to have the highest content of β–glucan demonstrating its good perspective in cereal processing and technology, food market and human and animal nutrition. The positive/negative correlations allow indirect evaluation of cereals in breeding work aimed at creation of forms with increased/decreased content of β–glucans in grain.

Keyword: barley, dietary fibre, farming type, oat, rye.

Assessment of HIV infection in cells of infected individuals

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–24

 

Jafar AGHAJANI1, Seyed Bashir MIRTAJANI1, Saba AMIRI KOJURI2, Reihane ZAHEIRE1, Saman AYOUBI*3

1Department of Biothechnology, Lahijan branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, IRAN

2Young Researchers and Elite club, Chalus branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalus, IRAN

3Department of Immunology, School of medicine, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, IRAN

*Corresponding author: olomtaghzye@gmail.com

Abstract. HIV is one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in cells of infected individuals and can cause diseases such as: encephalitis, pneumonia and chorioretinitis. The aim of this study is to investigate HIV infection in cells infected persons. This study was performed on 50 blood samples from individuals infected with HIV. Studied patients in the two groups were consumer and nonconsumer of antiretroviral drugs (mention the name of the Antiviral drug). After separation of plasma from the blood samples to detect HIV in cell culture and PCR were examined. Of the 50 patients, 56 % (n = 28) were male and 44 percent (n = 22) were women. DNA antibodies in 16 % (8 cases) were identified in the population, the prevalence of HIV infection in men 21.4 % (6 cases) and in women 1.9% (2 cases). The high prevalence of HIV infection in patients treated with CMV (full form of CMV), the treatment of HIV infection should be considered.

Keyword: HIV infection, cells infection, analyses, characteristics.

Ontological model for the evaluation of the impact of nanoparticles on the human cell morphology

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–18

Steliana RODINO1, Marian BUTU1*, Carmen GAIDAU2Manuela CALIN3, Alina BUTU1

 1National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, Bucharest, Romania,

2Leather and Footwear Research Institute, Bucharest, Romania,

3Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology “Nicolae Simionescu”, Bucharest, Romania,

*Corresponding author, e–mail: marian butu@yahoo.com

Abstract. The development of in silico methods with application in scientific research is in full progress. They have the advantage of being modest consumers of material resources and time and, also, of being easy to be used by researchers from various field of specialization. The research work described in this paper has pursued building an ontological model for the evaluation of the impact of nanoparticle on the human cell. This model can be used to determine the inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of nanomaterials on human cells by complements and refining of the data achieved by well–known laboratory techniques.

 Keyword: ontology, modelling, citotoxicity, nanoparticles.

Proximate and phytochemical changes in hydrothermally processed rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaf meal

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–12

Folajimi Promise SATIMEHIN1*, Lateef Oloyede TIAMIYU1, Robert Gabriel OKAYI1

 1Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, NIGERIA

Corresponding author: e–mail: folajimidaniel@gmail.com, Tel: +2347030648212

Abstract. Rubber leaves are a large by-product of rubber plantations which could serve as an important source of unconventional feed of agro by-product origin. However, it contains antinutritional factors which limits it utilization on a large scale as feed for animal nutrition. This study seeks to improve the nutritional value of rubber leaves meal through hydrothermal processing. Fresh leaves of rubber were collected from Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria in Benin City, and divided into five batches; four of these batches were subjected to varying periods of hydrothermal processing namely, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, while one batch was kept as control without processing. Result reveals significant reduction in phytic acid, Hydrocyanic acid and Tannin as the processing time progressed. However, crude protein increased till the 10th min and significantly reduced thereafter and contrary to this, fat and ash significantly reduced as the time increased. Nutritional trials with various animals are recommended to evaluate feed utilization as a result of this processing method.

Keyword: Unconventional feed stuff, Hydrogen Cyanide, Crude protein, Antinutritional factor.

Isolation and cloning of flanking regions (ndhB–rps7) of plastidial vector from lettuce

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(16)–5

Mahdieh GHOLIPOUR1, Bahram BAGHBAN KOHNEHROUZ1*

1Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN

*Corresponding author: bahramrouz@yahoo.com, Tel: +98 41 33392031, Fax: +98 41 33356003

Abstract. One of the advantages of chloroplast engineering is the entrance of targeted gene in to a specific region of the chloroplast genome. Due to advantage of this method than nuclear genetic engineering, it is one of the safest ways for the production of recombinant bio-pharmaceuticals, vaccines In this research, cloning of ndhB–rps7 fragment was considered from lettuce chloroplast genome as flanking regions. The designing of specific primers for amplification of these regions was done by Primer 3 and Oligo Analyzer softwares. After total genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification of fragment was done and cloning of this fragment was This work is the first step in the production of biomaterials in plants.

Keyword: Plastid Genome, flanking region, ndhB–rps7, Homologous recombination

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PIPTADENIASTRIUM AFRICANUM BARK ON Clarias gariepinus JUVENILES

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–123

Nnanke Agbam OJOGU, Paul Aunde ANNUNE, Gabriel Robert OKAYI

 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, NIGERIA

Corresponding author: nnankeagbam@yahoo.com, Tel: +2348076476065

 Abstract. A Laboratory study was carried out to assess the toxic effects of aqueous extracts of Piptadeniastrium africanum bark on Clarias gariepinus juveniles using the static bioassay with continuous aeration method. Phytochemical analysis of the P. africanum aqueous bark extract revealed the presence of tannins (1.95 %), saponin (2.95 %), flavonoid (5.63 %), Glycosides (1.05 %), Steroid (2.35 %), Terpens, (2.70 %).0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 mg/L concentrations were then applied to Clarias gariepinus juveniles (Mean weight: 18.26± 0.04 g) to determine the acute toxicity. The result obtained revealed the 96 h LC50 values to be 42.21 mg/L with 95 % confidence limit of 30.37–58.67 mg/L. Fish exposed to acute toxicity test exhibited behavioural changes such as discolouration, air gulping, erratic swimming, aggression, excessive mucus secretion, and settling at the bottom motionless just before death. Histological assessment of the gills showed that acute exposure of P. africanum bark led to degeneration of primary and secondary lamellae, lamellae with marginal channel dilation, blanketing of the lamellae, hyperplasia of epithelial cells, epithelial lifting and haemorrhage, oedema, necrosis and malformed secondary lamellae of the African catfish. The liver also showed focal necrosis, bile stagnation, nuclear degeneration, hepatocytes with irregular shaped nucleaus, cytoplasmic vacuolation, vascular congestion, bile pigment disintegration and cytoplasic degeneration Hyperplasia of epithelial cells and fusion of secondary lamellae. The toxic effect of the aqueous extract of the plant on C. gariepinus juveniles was both time and dose dependent.

Keyword: Piptadeniastrium africanum, Clarias gariepinus, toxicity, Histology.

Laurus nobilis FROM ALGERIA AND IMMUNE RESPONSE

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–119

Karima OULD YEROU¹*, Meddah B¹ Tir Touil A¹, Sarsar F2

 ¹Laboratory of Bioconversion; Microbiological Engineering and Safety, Faculté; University of Mascara, ALGERIA

2Laboratory of Bioxicology, Faculté Science; Department of Biology; University of Sidi Bel AbbesALGERIA

Corresponding author: mhanine11@yahoo.fr

 Abstract. Laurusnobilis is an aromatic plant, widespread in Algeria and widely used by local people as a source of spice and for its medicinal properties. The essential oil of this plant native to western Algeria is the subject of our study. The essential oil extraction was performed by steam distillation, the yield obtained from leaf is (1.5 %) by gavage Wistar rats males weight between 100g 80et were infected with Salmonella then treated with a dose 1 g / kg of the essential oil. In the day of sacrifice of the rats some parameters were determined: hemoglobin concentration (Hgb); haematocrit (Hct) and lymphocytes (white blood cell). The result shows the therapy of this magic plant “Laurus nobilis».

Keyword: Laurus nobilis, steam distillation, essential oil, hematology, Wistar rats.

THE EFFECTS OF ILLUMINATION ON THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF TAILED AND TAILLESS AMPHIBIANS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–113

Alexander B. RUCHIN

Smidovich Mordovia State Nature Reserve, Republic of Mordovia, RUSSIA

Correspondence address: Pushta, Temnikovski Raion, Republic of Mordovia, Russia 431230

Corresponding author: sasha_ruchin@rambler.ru

Abstract. The objective of this work consists in valuing the carob pods (very rich in sugars and in nourishing elements) as being a medium of culture for growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and comparison this natural syrup with MRS medium for lactic acid production curve. By its biochemical composition, the carob syrup is very rich in carbohydrates 16 g/L, protein 0.25 %, ash 0.8 % including potassium (110 mg/100 mL of MF), sodium (80) and calcium (150). Kinetics study of growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in MRS and carob pods syrup showed that high biomass and lactic acid were obtained in the end of carob fermentations respectively (5.51 and 13.8) compared to MRS fermentation (4.57 and 10.9). This study clearly showed that carob pods have potential to be used as feedstock for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus bulgaricus using batch culture.

Keyword: Abiotic Factor; Common Frog; Common Newt; Crested Newt; Development; Larvae; Moor Frog; Mortality.

KINETICS STUDY OF THE GROWTH OF Lactobacillus bulgaricus FROM CAROB PODS SYRUP

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–105

Hariri AHMED1*, Ouis NAWEL2, Bouhadi DJILALI1 and Ould Yerou KARIMA1

 1Bioconversion Laboratory, Microbiology Engineering and Health Safety, Faculty of Science the Nature and Life, University of Mascara, (UN 2901), BP.763, 29000, Sidi Said, Mascara, ALGERIA

2Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules and Biological Interfaces, Faculty of Science the Nature and Life, University of Mascara, (UN 2901), BP.763, 29000, Sidi Said, Mascara, ALGERIA

Corresponding author: haririahmed@yahoo.fr

Abstract. The objective of this work consists in valuing the carob pods (very rich in sugars and in nourishing elements) as being a medium of culture for growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and comparison this natural syrup with MRS medium for lactic acid production curve. By its biochemical composition, the carob syrup is very rich in carbohydrates 16 g/L, protein 0.25 %, ash 0.8% including potassium (110 mg/100 mL of MF), sodium (80) and calcium (150). Kinetics study of growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in MRS and carob pods syrup showed that high biomass and lactic acid were obtained in the end of carob fermentations respectively (5.51 and 13.8) compared to MRS fermentation (4.57 and 10.9). This study clearly showed that carob pods have potential to be used as feedstock for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus bulgaricus using batch culture.

Keyword: Carob pods syrup, fermentation, Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

ANATOMICAL FINDINGS OF Onobrychis (Fabaceae) IN IRAN AND THEIR TAXONOMIC IMPLICATIONS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–98

Sharhrzad NASSIRI SEMNANI

 Department of Biology, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan. IRAN

Corresponding author: Sh.Nasiri92@yahoo.com, Phone: +98–241–4265890

Abstract. Peduncle anatomy was investigated in 8 species of Onobrychis from Iran by light microscopy. Ten quantitative and qualitative characters were studied in the peduncle cross sections. Results showed that qualitative characters represent considerable variations within the section, some of which such as outline shape of the peduncle cross section, density of papillae on hair surface, and position of cavities in peduncles are taxonomically important characters to differ annual species from perennials in the section. Four groups were distinguished within the perennial species according to peduncle anatomical characters. In addition, a key is provided for the taxa based on these characters.

Keyword: Anatomical characters, cross section, Leguminoseae, Onobrychis.