EFFECT OF GONADOTROPHIN (DICLAIR®) ON SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS, HORMONAL PROFILE AND BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE SEMINAL PLASMA OF MATURE BALAMI RAMS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–90

Uche Ndubuisi EGU1 Josiah Chidiebere OKONKWO2

 1Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Abia State University, PMB 7010, Umuahia, NIGERIA

2Department of Animal Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB 5025 Akwa, NIGERIA

Corresponding author: ucheegu1@gmail.com, jc.okonkwo@unizik.edu.ng

Abstract. Twelve sexually matured (2–2.6 years old) healthy Balami rams were used to determine the effect of Gonadotrophin (Diclair®) on semen characteristics, body conformation and hormonal profile. The rams were divided into 3 treatment groups of 4 rams, identified as T1 (control), administered with 1.00 mL physiological saline, T2, administered with 54.00 i.u Diclair® (0.36 mL), T3, administered with 108.00i.u Diclair® (0.72 mL) with one ram per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The injections were divided into three doses each and administered intramuscularly in the thigh for three consecutive days. The results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatment groups in all the parameters for semen quality: semen volume, individual motility, sperm concentration, proportions of live, normal and dead sperm cells except semen pH which was similar (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups. The results further showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatment groups in luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels in the serum. However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level in the serum. Similarly, the results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatment groups in urea, glycerophosphocholine, ascorbic acid, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and fructose levels in the seminal plasma. The results of this study showed that Diclair® enhanced semen quality and was not detrimental to the hormonal profile and biochemical constituents of the seminal plasma of the Balami rams.

Keyword: Diclair®, semen quality, hormones, seminal plasma constituents, Balami rams.

DISTRIBUTION OF CYANOBACTERIA IN TWO SIRCH HOT SPRINGS WITH REGARDS TO THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL TRAITS OF WATER

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–83

Mohammad Mohsen SALAJEGHEH ANSARY*1, Ali AHMADIMOGHADAM2 Seied Mansour MIRTADZADINI2

1M.Sc. in Plant Ecology–Systematics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, and member of Young Researchers Association, Kerman, IRAN

2Assistant Professor in Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, IRAN

Corresponding author: mmsa@sci.uk.ac.ir; Phone: +98 9139437720; Fax: +983433257432

Abstract. Cyanobacteria live in diverse ecosystems including hot springs. In the present study, cyanobacterial flora of two hot springs located in Kerman, Iran was investigated for the first time. After sample collection, species were identified based on their morphological traits. To understand the fundamental patterns of species distribution; Physico–chemical environmental factors and species frequency were measured using standard methods and thereafter Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) of species frequency and environmental factors was carried out by Canoco program. Twenty cyanobacteria were identified. Results showed an ordered distribution of the species along the environmental factors. Results also showed the presence of mesothermophilous and facultative thermophile cyanobacteria in types of unicellular and filamentous in the two studied springs. Results also suggest that some species are adapted and resistant forms to sulfide. Diazotrophic strains were found to align in lowest compound nitrogen level, where others were removed from competition.

Keyword: Cyanobacterial flora, Aphanocapsa, Kerman, Sirch hot spring.

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOLS EXTRACTED FROM DIFFERENT HONEYS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–78

Hamza BELKHODJA*, Asmaa BELMIMOUN, Boumediene MEDDAH

 Laboratory of Bioconversion, Microbiology Engineering and Health Safety, Faculty of SNV, University of Mascara, ALGERIA

*Corresponding author: hamzabelkhodja@yahoo.fr

Abstract. The chemical composition of honey varies according to the quality of the harvested nectar. The aim of the study was to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of honey from different regions in Algeria. A qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out on honey polyphenol extract with the characterization of the majors groups and the determination of the amount of total polyphenols. The results indicate that the honey polyphenol extracts have different rates of phenolic compounds (Flavonoids, Tannins and Cardenolides). The polyphenol extracts present a concentration of 0.32, 0.4, 0.76 and 0.39 mg GAE/100 g for the extract of Mascara, Oran, Jijel and Tlemcen respectively. The different types of tested honey present a variable composition on phenolic compounds, which allowed us to determine the different therapeutic properties of honey.

Keyword: Honey, Polyphenols, Flavonoids, Tannins, Cardenolides.

EFFECTS OF MILK PRODUCTION AND SOME BLOOD METABOLITES ON PREGNANCY STABILITY IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–66

Nader FALLAHNEZHAD ANARJAN¹, Gholamali MOGHADDAM², Yahya EBRAHIMNEZHAD¹, Saeid AHARIZAD³

 1Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar Branch, Shabestar, IRAN

2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN

3Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IRAN

Corresponding author: ghmoghaddam@tabrizu.ac.ir, Tel. +98.41.33356004, Fax: +98.4136698260.

Abstract. In this experiment, relationships and correlations among some blood metabolites associated with energy and protein balance and their effects on pregnancy failure were investigated in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Blood and milk samples were collected from fifty-six lactating Holstein dairy cows based on their reproductive status (in 35–45 d post AI) and blood urea, milk urea, glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and betahydroxy butyric acid were measured by enzymatic colorimetric and blood progesterone was measured by ELISA method. Cows at 56 to 63 day post Artificial Insemination, were divided in to two groups of Pregnant (PG; n=25) and Non–pregnant (NPG; n=31) by touché rectal pregnancy diagnosis. In NPG group, there were significant correlations among milk yield and some energy balance related metabolites (betahydroxy butyric acid and glucose) concentrations and correlations among milk yield and protein balance related metabolites (blood urea and milk urea) were significant in both NPG and PG groups. Furthermore, there were significant differences between means of monthly milk yield record, cholesterol, betahydroxy butyric acid and progesterone between two groups. In conclusion, although evidence exists for adverse effects of elevated circulating urea on fertility, pregnant cows were able to adapt to elevated circulating urea over several days. However fluctuating concentrations of metabolites in the early postpartum period may offer potential explanations for latent effects of early postpartum energy balance on subsequent fertility. Furthermore, in pregnant cows, the importance of progesterone and cholesterol as a precursor of ovarian steroidogenesis for pregnancy stability has been observed.

Keyword: biomarker, blood metabolites, energy balance, pregnancy.

 

KINETIC OF BATCH PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID FROM CAROB PODS SYRUP

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–57

Bouhadi DLILALI1*, Hariri AHMED1, Benattouche ZOUAOUI1, Sahnouni FATIMA3, Ould Yerou KARIMA1

1Bioconversion Laboratory, Microbiology Engineering and Health Safety, faculty of Science the Nature and Life, University of Mascara, ALGERIA

2Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, Health and Proteomics, University of Sidi Bel–Abbès, ALGERIA

3Environmental Monitoring Network, faculty of Science, University of Oran, ALGERIA

Corresponding author: bouhadidjilali@yahoo.fr

Abstract. Lactic acid production from renewable resources such as pods of carob alternate to derived products from oil present a growing interest, in particular for the production of biodegradable polylactic acid polymer. The carob pods syrup is a by–product composed of sugars and its use as substrate of low cost in various industries is considered however, few microorganisms consume quickly and effectively sugars to give a single product. Lactic acid bacteria were screened for sugars fermentation and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus showed the highest levels of lactic acid production. The physicochemical analysis of carob pods syrup showed that it presents a suitable quality. The micro–organism implemented is kind Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, cultivated in bathe fermentation. Three culture mediums were tested, the carob syrup enriched with sweet cheese whey (CS+SCW), carob syrup enriched with Tween80 (CS+T80) and carob syrup enriched with sweet cheese whey+Tween80 (CS+SCW+T80), the addition of the growth factors improve the culture, that is why the production of lactate is very important improved 52.76 g/l.

Keyword: carob Ceratonia siliqua L, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, lactic acid.

EVALUATION OF BONE REGENERATION BY OSTRICH EGG WHITE SUBSTITUTE IMPLANTED WITH BONE IN TIBIA BONE DEFECT IN ANIMAL MODEL

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–50

Mehrdad YADEGARI

 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, IRAN

Corresponding author: e–mail: yadegari_mehrdad@yahoo.com; Phone: +989131813028; Fax: +983833361045

Abstract. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vivo to assess the effect of ostrich egg white (OEW)–derived graft substitutes on bone healing and comparative with self–regeneration of control site in dogs. The eight male domestic dogs (3–4 years old, weighing 20–30 kg) were used. Bone formation was assessed by using of OEW as kind of biomaterial that has flexibility and jelly shape with high compatibility. The implant was harvested after 4 and 8 weeks, and the area of new bone formation was quantified by radiology and densitometry studies. The highest bone formation was achieved with the OEW treatment, and it was significantly higher than that achieved with the empty treatment. The quantity of new bone at end of 8 weeks was greater than at 4 weeks in treated group. The researcher also show that Using OEW, the bone regeneration significantly increased within the implanted site in the biomaterial group, in the second month of the experiment, when compared to the control group. Furthermore, bone regeneration was significantly higher in the implant treatment biomaterial site of individual OEW, after implantation times, it’s showed little effect in enhancing bone regeneration 4 weeks post–implantation. Overall, it can be concluded that OEW (safe, cheap, and easily available) is a potent osteoidinductive component that plays critical role during bone regeneration and repairing in animal model.

Keyword: Animal model, Bone regeneration, Implant, Ostrich egg, Tibia bone.

ASSOCIATION OF YIELD ATTRIBUTING TRAITS IN PEA (Pisum sativum L.) GERMPLASM

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–43

Ikram BASHIR1*, Sumera ISHTIAQ1, Sajid FIAZ1,2, Muhammad SAJJAD1

  1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

2State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, CHINA

*Corresponding Authors: Ikram.pbg@gmail.com

 Abstract. The study was carried out during 2014–15 on twelve elite pea genotypes. On the basis of obtained results, the following conclusion was drawn and can be used for further breeding program. The analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits except seed yield per plant. The phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were slightly higher than their corresponding genetic coefficients variation (GCV) due to the influence of environment on character expression. High heritability estimates for all characters except pod weight per plant and seed yield per plant. High heritability for these traits indicated that selection could be more effective for genetic improvement. The path coefficient analysis showed that 100–seed weight, chlorophyll content, pod length and number of seed per pod had maximum direct effect on grain yield per plant.

Keyword: Pisum sativum; genotypes; correlation; yield.

STUDY ON PERENNIAL LEGUME-GRASS MIXTURES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAIN

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–34

Tatyana BOZHANSKA

 Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, 5600-Troyan,

281 Vasil Levski Street, Troyan, BULGARIA

Corresponding author: E-mail: tbozhanska@mail.bg

Abstract. The growth and development of six variants of legume–grass grasslands were observed in order to assess the productivity and quality of forage of some perennial grass mixtures in the conditions of the Central Balkan Mountain. The mixture of bird’s–foot–trefoil–red fescue demonstrated the highest productivity of dry biomass (749.46 kg/da) for the three years of study, followed by grasslands of red clover together with timothy–grass (734.06 kg/da) and tall fescue (712.81 kg/da). In mixed grasslands, white clover showed good compatibility both with Kenthucky bluegrass and perennial rye–grass. Better realization of clover plants with a higher dry matter productivity had the variants of legume grass Poa pratensis L. Forage of white clover–Kentucky bluegrass was the richest in proteins (151.6 g kg–1 DM), with the highest dry matter digestibility (712.6 g kg–1 DM) and with the lowest fiber content (NDF–356.5 g kg–1 DM; ADF–226.4 g kg–1 DM and cellulose–192.4 g kg–1 DM) of the cell walls with exception of lignin. Plants of Dactylis glomerata L. dominated with over 75% in the forage of variant with blue hybrid alfalfacock’s foot. Soil (pHKCL=4.3) and climate conditions of the region are the reason for the weaker growth of alfalfa grassland and the high degree of variability in terms of its realization, compared to legume grasses in the other variants. The plant grassland had the highest fiber content (346.3 g kg–1 DM), the lowest content of protein (114.9 g kg–1 DM), and the lowest dry matter digestibility (630.7 g kg–1 DM) compared to the other mixtures included in the experiment.

Keyword: Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense, Festuca pratensis, Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Phleum pratense, Dactylis glomerata, Grass mixtures, Productivity and quality of forage.

IMPROVEMNET OF HAIRY ROOT INDUCTION IN Artemisia annua BY VARIOUS STRAINS OF Agrobacterium rhizogenes

 DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–25

Sona AYADI HASSAN1*, Zahra BELBASI2

 1Department of biotechnology, Faculty of advanced sciences and technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IRAN

2Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IRAN

Corresponding author: sonaayadi@rocketmail.com

Abstract. Plants have been considered as a significant source of drugs since ancient times. Secondary metabolites derived from plants have revealed therapeutic properties. Artemisinin and its derivatives are the most famous terpenoids in the Asteraceae family. Nowadays, numerous attempts have been done to improve the production rate of these kinds of terpenoids in biotechnological procedures which most of them are allocated to hairy root cultures using Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4, A7, Ar15834, Ar9534, Ar9402, Ar318 and Ar50). In this study, we tried to investigate the effect different strains of A. rhizogenes on frequency of hairy root induction in A. annua. Explants were prepared from leaves of A. annua. Then they were soaked in A. rhizogenes solution to be infected. They were cultured in MS medium for 14 days. For decreasing plant necrosis, two different concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5 % were added to the medium as anti–oxidant. For hairy root induction approve, PCR method was applied. Hairy roots were obvious in plantlets on ½ MS medium culture. The presence of T–DNA in different transformed lines of hairy roots was investigated by PCR. The results indicated that making 0.5 % ascorbic acid MS Medium will lead to a dramatic decrease (about 80 %) in plantlet’s browning. In addition, the highest and lowest transformation rate of 79 % and 24 % were yielded, infecting the leaf explants of A. annua by A7 and Ar318 strains respectively. To sum it up, it was shown that all mentioned strains are capable to induce hairy root in A. annua by the help of ascorbic acid as an inhibitor for plantlet’s browning. Because of hormone–autotrophic feature and great lateral branches of hairy roots, the induced hairy roots of A. annua can be applied to increase artemisinin production in pharmaceutical industry.

Keyword: Artemisia annua; Agrobacterium rhizogenes; artemisinin; hairy root.

VARIABILITY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF SOME IMPORTANT ALFALFA GERMPLASM TRAITS

DOI: 10.7904/2068–4738–VIII(15)–18

Diana H. MARINOVA

 Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflic”, 1 “Prof. Ivan Ivanov” str. 7007 Rousse, BULGARIA

*Corresponding author: diana27hm@abv.bg

Abstract. The study was carried out from 2010 to 2013 under specific soil and climatic conditions in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obraztsov chiflik”–Rousse. The objective of the study was to establish variability of some important alfalfa traits and relationships between them in alfalfa germplasm. The relatively low variation coefficient for quality traits–leaf/stem ratio (1.22 %) and crude protein content (2.16 %) was established, and the highest coefficient for stem number per unit area and dry matter yield. Dry matter yield was strictly and positively correlated with stems number per m2 and moderately negatively with leaf/stem ratio. A weak negative relationship between dry matter yield and protein content was found. The result of present investigation indicated that number of stems could be a successful criterion in selection for alfalfa yield increase and quality improvement, respectively.

Keyword: alfalfa, crud protein, dry matter yield, leaf/stem ratio, stems number.